For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Alzheimer disease, see 104300. Mapping Liu et al. (2007) conducted a genome screen of 103 patients with late-onset AD who were ascertained as part of the Genetic Research in Isolated Populations (GRIP) program that was conducted in an isolated population from the southwestern area of the Netherlands. Genealogic information resulted in an extremely large and complex pedigree of 4,645 members. The pedigree was split into 35 subpedigrees to reduce the computational burden of linkage analysis. The strongest evidence for linkage, hlod = 5.20 at marker D1S498, was obtained at chromosome 1q21 (AD13).
Early-onset, autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease is a form of Alzheimer disease (AD) that develops before the age of 65. It is diagnosed in families that have more than one member with AD (usually multiple persons in more than one generation) in which the age of onset is consistently before age 60 and often between the ages of 30 and 60 years. In general, AD is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes gradual loss of memory, judgement, and the ability to function socially. There are three subtypes of early-onset familial AD which are each associated with changes (mutations) in unique genes: (1) Alzheimer disease, type 1 is caused by mutations in the APP gene (2) Alzheimer disease, type 3 is caused by mutations in the PSEN1 gene (3) Alzheimer disease, type 4 is caused by mutations in the PSEN2 gene. All subtypes are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. There is no cure for AD.
For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Alzheimer disease (AD), see 104300. Mapping By genomewide linkage analysis of 466 families with late-onset AD, including 730 affected sib pairs, Pericak-Vance et al. (2000) identified a candidate disease locus on chromosome 9p22.1 (nonparametric maximum lod score of 2.97 at marker D9S741). Analysis of a subset of 199 families in which there was at least 1 autopsy-confirmed AD case yielded a higher lod score of 4.31 at the same marker. Scott et al. (2003) reexamined 437 white AD families included in the original report by Pericak-Vance et al. (2000) by considering age of onset as a covariate. Ordered-subsets analysis included continuous covariates in linkage analysis by rank ordering families by a covariate and summing lod scores.
Description Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by subtle onset of memory loss followed by a slowly progressive dementia. The great majority of AD cases are of late onset (LOAD) after age 65 years. LOAD shows complex, nonmendelian patterns of inheritance, and most likely results from the combined effects of variation in a number of genes as well as from environmental factors (summary by Grupe et al., 2006). The Alzheimer disease-6 (AD6) designation refers to a susceptibility locus on chromosome 10q. Although significant associations with several candidate genes on chromosome 10 have been reported, these findings have not been consistently replicated, and they remain controversial (Grupe et al., 2006).
For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Alzheimer disease (AD), see 104300. Mapping In a late-onset form of familial Alzheimer disease (AD), Pericak-Vance et al. (1997) identified linkage to a locus on chromosome 12. From a series of multiplex families affected with late-onset AD (at least 60 years) ascertained during the previous 14 years and for which DNA had been obtained, Pericak-Vance et al. (1997) selected a subset of 16 families (with 52 AD patients) to use for a genomewide screen. A second subset of 38 families (with 89 AD patients) was used for a follow-up analysis. Linkage analysis was performed using both genetic model-dependent (lod score) and model-independent methods.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that familial Alzheimer disease-1 (AD1) is caused by mutation in the gene encoding the amyloid precursor protein (APP; 104760) on chromosome 21q. A homozygous mutation in the APP gene with a dominant-negative effect on amyloidogenesis was found in a patient with an early-onset progressive dementia and his affected younger sister (104760.0022). A coding single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the APP gene (104760.0023) has been shown to have a protective effect against Alzheimer disease. See also APP-related cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA; 605714), which shows overlapping clinical and neuropathologic features. Description Alzheimer disease is the most common form of progressive dementia in the elderly.
Clinical Features Leuba et al. (2000) described a Swiss family whose members presented with standard clinical and neuropathologic features of Alzheimer disease (104300) and, in particular, severe neurofibrillary tangle degeneration present in the hippocampus and in several cortical areas, together with a large number of beta-amyloid deposits and senile plaques. The brain pathology of 5 deceased members of this family, from 2 generations, represented a coexisting beta-amyloid and prion protein (PrP; 176640) pathology. Frequent beta-amyloid-positive senile plaques were observed, together with senile plaques stained by the monoclonal antibody against PrP(106-126). In all 5 cases, the cerebral cortex showed spongiform changes, mainly in the superficial layers, with some degree of gliosis. Successive sections showed that both beta-amyloid- and PrP-positive senile plaques were deposited in all layers of the frontal and temporal cortex.
For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Alzheimer disease (AD), see 104300. Mapping In a linkage study of 272 affected sib pairs (ASPs) with AD who were 60 years of age or older at onset, Blacker et al. (1997) found strong evidence of linkage on chromosomes 20 (lod score = 4.09) and 21 (lod score = 5.9). Because of the large marker spacing in the initial genome scan, the candidate region on chromosome 20 spanned 25 cM, corresponding to chromosomal bands 20p12.2-q11.21. Within this candidate region, 1 gene of particular interest was that encoding cystatin-3 (CST3; 604312), because it is known to be an amyloidogenic protein and is codeposited with the amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP; 104760) in amyloid plaques in the brain of AD patients. Using a covariate-based linkage method, Olson et al. (2001) showed that the APP region on chromosome 21q21 is strongly linked to AD-affected sib pairs of the oldest current age (i.e., age either at last exam or at death) who lacked E4 alleles at the apolipoprotein E (APOE; 107741) locus.
Early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (EOAD) is a progressive dementia with reduction of cognitive functions. EOAD presents the same phenotype as sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD) but has an early age of onset, usually before 60 years old. Epidemiology EOAD represents less than 1% of all cases of AD. Clinical description Initial findings of EOAD are mainly disorders of episodic memory or changes in behavior. The patient is often anosognosic and the diagnosis is therefore carried out with the help of a family member. Neurological signs that can be associated with EOAD are spastic paraparesis, intracerebral hemorrhages, seizures, extrapyramidal syndrome and exceptionally cerebellar ataxia.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because Alzheimer disease-4 (AD4) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the presenilin-2 gene (PSEN2; 600759) on chromosome 1q42. For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Alzheimer disease, see 104300. Clinical Features Bird et al. (1988) described 5 German kindreds with an autosomal dominant early-onset form of Alzheimer disease. All families were descendants of a group of immigrants, known as the Volga Germans, who came to the United States between 1870 and 1920. Their ancestors had moved from Germany to the southern Volga region of Russia in the 1760s.
Familial Alzheimer disease (familial AD) is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes gradual loss of memory, judgment, and the ability to function socially. About 25% of all Alzheimer disease is familial (more than 2 people in a family have AD). When Alzheimer disease begins before 60 or 65 years of age (early-onset AD) about 60% of the cases are familial (also known as Early-onset familial AD). These cases appear to be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. There are three subtypes of early-onset familial AD which are each associated with changes (mutations) in unique genes: (1) Alzheimer disease, type 1 is caused by mutations in the APP gene (2) Alzheimer disease, type 3 is caused by mutations in the PSEN1 gene (3) Alzheimer disease, type 4 is caused by mutations in the PSEN2 gene. The condition known as late-onset familial AD includes only the subtype Alzheimer disease, type 2 and is associated with the APOE *4 allele on chromosome 19.
For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Alzheimer disease, see 104300. Mapping Liu et al. (2007) conducted a genome screen of 103 patients with late-onset AD who were ascertained as part of the Genetic Research in Isolated Populations (GRIP) program that was conducted in an isolated population from the southwestern area of the Netherlands. Genealogic information resulted in an extremely large and complex pedigree of 4,645 members. The pedigree was split into 35 subpedigrees to reduce the computational burden of linkage analysis. They found significant evidence of linkage of AD to 3q22-q24 (AD15), in a region of 18 cM from D3S3514 to D3S3626 that reached a maximum hlod of 4.44 at marker D3S1579.
For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Alzheimer disease, see 104300. Mapping In a genome screen of individuals from an isolated population from the southwestern area of the Netherlands, ascertained as part of the Genetic Research in Isolated Populations (GRIP) program, Liu et al. (2007) found the strongest evidence of linkage for chromosome 1q21 (AD13; 611152). Approximately 30 cM upstream of this locus, at 1q25, another peak (AD14) was found (hlod = 4.0 at marker D1S218). Liu et al. (2007) noted that these 2 loci were in a linkage region spanning 1q21-q31 identified by Zubenko et al. (1998), Hiltunen et al. (2001), Myers et al. (2002), and Blacker et al. (2003). Haplotype analysis showed that the 2 linkage peaks on chromosome 1q21 and 1q25 are explained by different haplotypes, of 15 cM and 21 cM, respectively, segregating in different families.
For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Alzheimer disease (AD), see 104300. Mapping Giedraitis et al. (2006) conducted a genome scan with 369 microsatellite markers in 12 extended families collected in Sweden. Age at disease onset ranged from 53 to 78 years, but in 10 of the families there was at least 1 member with age at onset of less than 65 years. Mutations in known early-onset Alzheimer disease susceptibility genes were excluded. All persons were genotyped for APOE (107741), but no clear linkage with the E4 allele was observed.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because early-onset familial Alzheimer disease-3 (AD3) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the presenilin-1 gene (PSEN1; 104311) on chromosome 14q24. For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Alzheimer disease, see 104300. Clinical Features Campion et al. (1995) studied a large pedigree that included 34 subjects with early-onset progressive dementia with mean age at onset at 46 plus or minus 3.5 years and mean age at death at 52.6. Myoclonus and extrapyramidal signs were common; seizures were present in all affected subjects. There were neuropathologic changes typical of Alzheimer disease in the 2 brains examined.
For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Alzheimer disease (AD), see 104300. Mapping In an extended multiplex family, ascertained in a population-based study of early-onset AD in the northern Netherlands, Rademakers et al. (2005) obtained conclusive evidence of linkage of AD with a candidate region of 19.7 cM at 7q36. They identified a shared haplotype at 7q36 between the index family and 3 of 6 multiplex AD-affected families from the same geographic region, which was indicative of a founder effect and defined a priority region of 9.3 cM. Mutation analysis of coding exons of 29 candidate genes identified only an exonic silent mutation in the PAXIP1 gene (608254), 38030G-C in the exon 10 genomic sequence, which affected codon 626. It remained to be determined whether PAXIP1 has a functional role in the expression of AD in the index family or whether another mutation at this locus explained the observed linkage and sharing.
For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Alzheimer disease (AD), see 104300. Mapping In a systematic survey of the human genome in patients with AD, Zubenko et al. (1998) identified D10S1423, located at 10p13, as a candidate susceptibility locus. The allelic associations in this survey were observed in independent samples of autopsied AD cases and controls from geographically disparate sites (Boston and Pittsburgh). Majores et al. (2000) replicated these findings by identifying an association of the D10S1423 234-bp allele with AD in an ethnically homogeneous group of 397 German AD cases and controls. Zubenko et al. (2001) described a prospective, longitudinal, double-blind assessment of the age-specific risk of AD encountered by 325 asymptomatic first-degree relatives of AD probands who carried the D10S1423 234-bp allele, the APOE E4 allele (107741), or both, after 11.5 years of systematic follow-up.
Overview Adult Still disease is a rare type of inflammatory arthritis. Common symptoms are fevers, rash and joint pain. The condition can occur in some people as a single episode that goes away. In other people, the condition doesn't go away, or it goes away but comes back. Adult Still disease can damage joints, particularly the wrists. Treatment involves medicine to reduce pain and help control the disease. Prednisone is often used if pain relievers such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) are not enough.
Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is an inflammatory condition that affects multiple organs. The most common symptoms are high fevers, skin rash, arthritis, and high levels of ferritin , a protein that stores iron in the blood. Other symptoms include an enlarged spleen and lymph nodes, joint pain, and sore throat. In some cases, symptoms may be severe and lead to organ and joint damage. The cause of AOSD is unknown, but genetic and other unknown factors may be involved.
For example, HP typically has an earlier age of pancreatitis onset; although malabsorption and diabetes mellitus occur at a later stage in the disease progression.  Genetics [ edit ] The vast majority of the cases of HP are caused by substitutions, at base 365 (c.365G>A) and base 86 of the cDNA (c.86A>T) on the PRSS1 gene.
Hereditary pancreatitis causes multiple episodes of inflammation of the pancreas ( pancreatitis ), an important digestive organ. Symptoms usually begin in childhood and may last a few days or longer. Signs and symptoms may include stomach pain, nausea, or vomiting. People with hereditary pancreatitis develop chronic pancreatitis, a constantly inflamed pancreas. This leads to symptoms which may include fatty stools, weight loss, and poor absorption of nutrients from food. Adults with hereditary pancreatitis are at an increased risk for type 1 diabetes and pancreatic cancer.
A rare gastroenterologic disease characterized by recurrent acute pancreatitis and/or chronic pancreatitis in at least 2 first-degree relatives, or 3 or more second-degree relatives in 2 or more generations, for which no predisposing factors are identified. This rare inherited form of pancreatitis leads to irreversible damage to both exocrine and endocrine components of the pancreas. Epidemiology The estimated prevalence of hereditary chronic pancreatitis (HCP) is approximately 1/300,000 people in Europe (1/800,000 in Germany, approximately 1/333,335 in France and approximately 1/175,440 in Denmark). Clinical description Onset of HCP is typically early in life, during childhood and adolescence. The clinical presentation is highly variable and includes chronic or intermittent mild to severe abdominal pain associated with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, leading to maldigestion and/or pancreatic endocrine insufficiency (glucose intolerance progressing to diabetes mellitus type 3c) in some cases.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that chronic pancreatitis can be caused by mutation in the cationic trypsinogen gene PRSS1 (276000) and the SPINK1 gene (167790). Furthermore, idiopathic pancreatitis has been found to be associated with mutations in the cystic fibrosis gene (CFTR; 602421). A missense variant in the PRSS2 gene (601564.0001) confers protection against chronic pancreatitis. Variants in the chymotrypsin C gene (601405) that diminish activity or secretion are associated with chronic pancreatitis. Clinical Features Gross et al. (1962) described a kindred with affected persons in 4 generations.
Hereditary pancreatitis is a genetic condition characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis). The pancreas produces enzymes that help digest food, and it also produces insulin , a hormone that controls blood sugar levels in the body. Episodes of pancreatitis can lead to permanent tissue damage and loss of pancreatic function. Signs and symptoms of this condition usually begin in late childhood with an episode of acute pancreatitis. A sudden (acute) attack can cause abdominal pain, fever, nausea, or vomiting.
N/A some time during his reign (141 BC–87 BC) Emperor Ai of Jin At the young age of 25 Ai began to fear aging, he was soon presented pills by his team of alchemists which would result in his death. death 365 AD Emperor Daowu Emperor Daowu was distantly interested in the art of alchemy. ... A single alchemical formula could be interpreted as being "suicidal, therapeutic, or symbolic and contemplative", and its implementation might be "a unique, decisive event or a repeated, ritual phantasmagoria" (Strickmann 1979: 192). Emperor Ai of Jin (r. 361–365) died at the age of twenty-five, as the result of his desire to avoid growing old. ... Compare the historical descriptions of Jin Emperor Ai (d. 365) who "no longer knew what was going on around him" and Tang Emperor Wuzong (d. 846) who was "very irritable, losing all normal self-control in joy or anger ... he could not speak for ten days at a time" with the distinctive psychological effects of mercury poisoning: progressing from "abnormal irritability to idiotic, melancholic, or manic conditions" (1970: 327).
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a disorder that usually occurs when an E. coli bacterial infection in the digestive system produces toxic substances that destroy red blood cells. Symptoms include vomiting and diarrhea, fever, lethargy , and weakness. In severe cases it can lead to kidney failure or death. While this condition is most common in children, it often has a more complicated presentation in adults. Treatment may include dialysis, corticosteroids, transfusions of packed red blood cells and plasmapheresis . Hemolytic uremic syndrome should be distinguished from atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS).
This article is an orphan , as no other articles link to it . Please introduce links to this page from related articles ; try the Find link tool for suggestions. ( February 2018 ) Autosomal dominant porencephaly type I Other names Infantile hemiplegia with porencephaly, Porencephaly type 1 The autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance seen in this form of porencephaly  Autosomal dominant porencephaly type I is a rare type of porencephaly that causes cysts to grow on the brain and damage to small blood vessels, which can lead to cognitive impairment , migraines , seizures , and hemiplegia or hemiparesis . Contents 1 Signs and symptoms 2 Genetics 3 Diagnosis 4 Treatment 5 Epidemiology 6 References 7 External links Signs and symptoms [ edit ] Different people are affected very differently by this disease. The main manifestation is fluid-filled cysts that grow on the brain and can cause damage that varies depending on their location and severity. Symptoms may manifest early in infancy, or may manifest as late as adulthood. Symptoms associated with autosomal dominant porencephaly type I include migraines, hemiplegia or hemiparesis, seizures, cognitive impairment, strokes , dystonia , speech disorders , involuntary muscle spasms , visual field defects , and hydrocephalus .  Genetics [ edit ] Autosomal dominant porencephaly type I is caused by mutations in a gene called COL4A1 , located at 13q34 (band 34 on the long arm of chromosome 13 ).
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that brain small vessel disease-2 (BSVD2) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the COL4A2 gene (120090) on chromosome 13q34. Description Brain small vessel disease-2 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by variable neurologic impairment resulting from disturbed vascular supply that leads to cerebral degeneration. The disorder is often associated with 'porencephaly' on brain imaging. Affected individuals typically have hemiplegia, seizures, and intellectual disability, although the severity is variable (summary by Yoneda et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of brain small vessel disease, see BSVD1 (175780).
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that brain small vessel disease-1 with or without ocular anomalies (BSVD1) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the COL4A1 gene (120130) on chromosome 13q34. Description Brain small vessel disease-1 is an autosomal dominant disorder with variable manifestations resulting from disruption of vascular basement membranes, particularly in the cerebral vasculature. The increased fragility of these vessels render them susceptible to hemorrhage, as early as in utero or by birth trauma, although the risk remains throughout life and some patients may present in adulthood. This genetic predisposition may extend beyond hemorrhagic stroke to include retinal and renal vascular defects. Clinical features thus reflect the location and severity of the vascular defect, including impaired neurologic development or function, hemiplegia, seizures, and variable ocular anomalies.
T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia is a rare cancer of a type of white blood cells called lymphocytes. T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia causes a slow increase in white blood cells called T lymphocytes, or T cells, which originate in the lymph system and bone marrow and help to fight infection. This disease usually affects people in their sixties. Symptoms include anemia; low levels of platelets (thrombocytopenia) and infection-fighting neutrophils ( neutropenia ) in the blood; and an enlarged spleen . About one-third of patients are asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis. The exact cause of LGL leukemia is unknown. Doctors can diagnose this disease through a bone marrow biopsy , or by using a specialized technique in which various types of blood or bone marrow cells are separated, identified, and counted.
Hyperparathyroidism is an endocrine disorder in which the parathyroid glands in the neck produce too much parathyroid hormone (PTH). Signs and symptoms are often mild and nonspecific, such as a feeling of weakness and fatigue, depression, or aches and pains. With more severe disease, a person may have a loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, constipation, confusion or impaired thinking and memory, and increased thirst and urination. Patients may have thinning of the bones without symptoms, but with risk of fractures. There are two main types of hyperparathyroidism: primary hyperparathyroidism and secondary hyperparathyroidism .
Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is a very rare complication of an Epstein Barr virus (EBV) infection. Symptoms of CAEBV may include fever, swollen lymph nodes, and an enlarged liver and/or spleen. More serious complications may include anemia, nerve damage, liver failure, and/or interstitial pneumonia. Symptoms may be constant or come and go, and tend to get worse over time. CAEBV occurs when the virus remains ‘active’ and the symptoms of an EBV infection do not go away.
Chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection syndrome is a rare infectious disease characterized by familial, primary, chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection which typically manifests with persistent mononucleosis-like signs and symptoms, in the absence of secondary immunodeficiency.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that immunodeficiency-32B (IMD32B) is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the IRF8 gene (601565) on chromosome 16q24. Immunodeficiency-32A (IMD32A; 614893), an autosomal dominant disorder, is allelic. Description Immunodeficiency-32B is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections resulting from variable defects in immune cell development or function, including monocytes, dendritic cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Patients have particular susceptibility to viral disease (summary by Mace et al., 2017). Clinical Features Fleisher et al. (1982) reported a family in which 3 sibs had an immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by susceptibility to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
. ^ Hoerauf A, Mand S, Fischer K, Kruppa T, Marfo-Debrekyei Y, Debrah AY, Pfarr KM, Adjei O, Buttner DW (2003), "Doxycycline as a novel strategy against bancroftian filariasis-depletion of Wolbachia endosymbionts from Wuchereria bancrofti and stop of microfilaria production", Med Microbiol Immunol (Berl) , 192 (4): 211–6, doi : 10.1007/s00430-002-0174-6 , PMID 12684759 , S2CID 23349595 ^ Taylor MJ, Makunde WH, McGarry HF, Turner JD, Mand S, Hoerauf A (2005), "Macrofilaricidal activity after doxycycline treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti: a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial", Lancet , 365 (9477): 2116–21, doi : 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66591-9 , PMID 15964448 , S2CID 21382828 ^ a b Andersson J, Forssberg H, Zierath JR (5 October 2015), "Avermectin and Artemisinin - Revolutionary Therapies against Parasitic Diseases" (PDF) , The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet , retrieved 5 October 2015 ^ Ndeffo-Mbah ML, Galvani AP (April 2017).
A parasitic disease caused by tissue-invasive, vector-borne nematodes which can be found anywhere in the human body and that are transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito or fly or by consumption of unsafe drinking water and which, depending on the subtype can manifest with lymphedema, dermatitis, subcutaneous edema and eye involvement. The disorder is a major public health problem in many tropical and subtropical countries. Six subtypes have been described in the literature: lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, loiasis, mansonelliasis, dirofilariasis and dracunculiasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and filarioidea of the genus Brugia ; Onchocerca volvulus ; Loa loa ; Mansonella ; Dirofilaria ; and Dracunculus medinensis , respectively. Tropical eosinophilia is considered a frequent manifestation.
Generalized pustular psoriasis is a severe inflammatory skin condition that can be life-threatening. Affected people develop episodes of red and tender skin with widespread pustules throughout their body. This is generally accompanied by fever, chills, headache, rapid pulse rate, loss of appetite, nausea and muscle weakness. The condition generally resolves within days or weeks; however, relapses are common. Some cases of generalized pustular psoriasis are caused by changes (mutations) in the IL36RN gene and are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because pustular psoriasis-14 (PSORS14) is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the IL36RN gene (605507) on chromosome 2q14. Description Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is a life-threatening disease characterized by sudden, repeated episodes of high-grade fever, generalized rash, and disseminated pustules, with hyperleukocytosis and elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein (123260) (summary by Marrakchi et al., 2011). GPP often presents in patients with existing or prior psoriasis vulgaris (PV; see 177900); however, GPP can develop without a history of PV (Sugiura et al., 2013). Palmoplantar pustulosis and acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau represent acral forms of pustular psoriasis that have historically been grouped with GPP (summary by Setta-Kaffetzi et al., 2013). GPP in association with sterile multifocal osteomyelitis and periostitis (612852) is caused by mutation in the IL1RN gene (147679).
Generalized pustular psoriasis is a severe inflammatory skin disease that can be life-threatening and that is characterized by recurrent episodes of high fever, fatigue, episodic erythematous cutaneous eruptions with sterile cutaneous pustules formation on various parts of the body, and neutrophil leukocytosis.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that susceptibility to pustular psoriasis-15 (PSORS15) is conferred by heterozygous mutation in the AP1S3 gene (615781) on chromosome 2q36. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of psoriasis, see PSORS1 (177900). Molecular Genetics Setta-Kaffetzi et al. (2014) performed whole-exome sequencing in 9 patients with acral pustular psoriasis (acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau) who were negative for mutation in the CARD14 (607211) and IL36RN (605507) genes, and identified heterozygosity for a missense mutation in the AP1S3 gene (R33W; 615781.0001) in 4 patients. Subsequent screening of 119 unrelated British patients with pustular psoriasis, including 112 with the palmoplantar form (PPP), 5 with the generalized form (GPP), and 2 with the acral form, revealed the same R33W missense mutation in 5 additional patients, 4 with PPP and 1 with GPP; in addition, 6 patients, 5 with PPP and 1 with GPP, were heterozygous for another missense mutation (F4C; 615781.0002) in the AP1S3 gene. Overall, Setta-Kaffetzi et al. (2014) observed that AP1S3 variants were detected in all forms of pustular psoriasis but were noticeably enriched among patients with the acral form and significantly underrepresented within the PPP dataset.
Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare neuroinflammatory disease of paraneoplastic, parainfectious or idiopathic origin, characterized by opsoclonus, myoclonus, ataxia, and behavioral and sleep disorders. Epidemiology The annual incidence is estimated at around 1/5,000,000. Clinical description OMS typically presents between 1 and 3 years of age, although it can occur earlier or later in childhood. It is characterized by opsoclonus (rapid, multi-directional, conjugate eye movements), myoclonic jerks, ataxia, irritability and sleep disturbances. The clinical course may be monophasic or chronic relapsing. OMS is associated in approximately 50% of pediatric cases with a neuroblastoma (see this term); this tumour is usually (but not always) of low grade with a good oncological outcome.
Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare disorder that affects the nervous system. Symptoms include rapid, multi-directional eye movements (opsoclonus), quick, involuntary muscle jerks ( myoclonus ), uncoordinated movement (ataxia), irritability, and sleep disturbance. The onset of OMS is usually abrupt and often severe. The disease may become chronic. OMS typically occurs in association with tumors ( neuroblastomas ), or following a viral or bacterial infection. Treatment may include corticosteroids or ACTH ( adrenocorticotropic hormone ).