Human Molecular Genetics (4th ed.). New York: Garland Science. pp. 427–428. ^ a b Shaffer, Lisa G.; Ledbetter, David H.; Lupski, James R. (2004). ... (eds.). Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease (8th ed.).
Netherton syndrome is a type of ichthyosis. Symptoms vary but commonly include inflamed, red, scaly skin, short, brittle, lustreless hair, and a predisposition to allergy problems (e.g., to nuts, hay fever, and asthma). Symptoms may be mild or severe and tend to present in infancy. Failure to thrive and recurrent infection are possible complications in infants with this syndrome. Netherton syndrome is caused by mutations in the SPINK5 gene. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. The goals of treatment are to manage symptoms and prevent skin infections and other complications. This may include the use of lotions and creams, antibiotics, topical steroids and other therapies.
Netherton syndrome is a disorder that affects the skin, hair, and immune system. Newborns with Netherton syndrome have skin that is red and scaly (ichthyosiform erythroderma), and the skin may leak fluid. Some affected infants are born with a tight, clear sheath covering their skin called a collodion membrane. This membrane is usually shed during the first few weeks of life. Because newborns with this disorder are missing the protection provided by normal skin, they are at risk of becoming dehydrated and developing infections in the skin or throughout the body (sepsis), which can be life-threatening. Affected babies may also fail to grow and gain weight at the expected rate (failure to thrive).
Netherton syndrome (NS) is a skin disorder characterized by congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE), a distinctive hair shaft defect (trichorrhexis invaginata; TI) and atopic manifestations. Epidemiology Incidence is estimated at 1/200,000 births. Clinical description Patients generally present at birth with generalized erythroderma and scaling, and failure to thrive. Frequent complications include hypernatremic dehydration, recurrent infections, and diarrhea and intestinal malabsorption. The disease course is heterogeneous: the generalized erythroderma may persist in some patients, but more frequently it evolves during childhood into ichthyosis linearis circumflexa (ILC). ILC is a milder and highly characteristic skin disorder marked by migratory erythematous plaques with a double-edged scale.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that Netherton syndrome (NETH) is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the SPINK5 gene (605010), encoding the serine protease inhibitor LEKTI, on chromosome 5q32. Description Netherton syndrome is a rare and severe autosomal recessive skin disorder characterized by congenital erythroderma, a specific hair-shaft abnormality, and atopic manifestations with high IgE levels. Generalized scaly erythroderma is apparent at or soon after birth and usually persists. Scalp hair is sparse and brittle with a characteristic 'bamboo' shape under light microscopic examination due to invagination of the distal part of the hair shaft to its proximal part. Atopic manifestations include eczema-like rashes, atopic dermatitis, pruritus, hay fever, angioedema, urticaria, high levels of IgE in the serum, and hypereosinophilia.
., eds. (2010). "53. Tumours of the Skin Appendages: Eccrine or aprocrine/follicular tumours". Rook's Textbook of Dermatology (8th ed.). Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. ISBN 978-1-4051-6169-5 . ^ Griffiths C, Cox N, Breathnach S, et al., eds. (2010). "53. ... Rook's Textbook of Dermatology (8th ed.). Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
(Ninth ed.). [Edinburgh]. ISBN 9780702049828 . OCLC 960030340. ^ a b Crispian., Scully (2008). Oral and maxillofacial medicine : the basis of diagnosis and treatment (2nd ed.). ... Scully, Crispian,, Almeida, Oslei Paes de,, Bagan, Jose,, Taylor, Adalberto Mosqueda,, Scully, Crispian, Preceded by (work) (Second ed.). ... (Third ed.). Edinburgh. ISBN 9780702046001 . OCLC 826658944. ^ a b Suárez-Roa, María de Lourdes; Reveiz, Ludovic; Ruíz-Godoy Rivera, Luz María; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan; Dávila-Serapio, José Eduardo; Menjívar-Rubio, Andrés H; Meneses-García, Abelardo (2009-10-07). ... Oral and maxillofacial diseases : an illustrated guide to diagnosis and management of diseases of the oral mucosa, gingivae, teeth, salivary glands, jaw bones and joints (4th ed.).
Neuroferritinopathy is a disorder in which iron gradually accumulates in the brain. Certain brain regions that help control movement (basal ganglia) are particularly affected. People with neuroferritinopathy have progressive problems with movement that begin at about age 40. These movement problems can include involuntary jerking motions (chorea), rhythmic shaking (tremor), difficulty coordinating movements (ataxia), or uncontrolled tensing of muscles (dystonia). Symptoms of the disorder may be more apparent on one side of the body than on the other.
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (formerly called Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome) is a disorder of the nervous system. This condition is characterized by progressive difficulty with movement, typically beginning in childhood. Movement abnormalities include involuntary muscle spasms, rigidity, and trouble with walking that worsens over time. Many people with this condition also develop problems with speech (dysarthria), and some develop vision loss. Additionally, affected individuals may experience a loss of intellectual function (dementia) and psychiatric symptoms such as behavioral problems, personality changes, and depression.
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is a group of inherited neurologic disorders in which iron accumulates in the basal ganglia. Symptoms include progressive dystonia (a movement disorder resulting in muscular spasms, twisting, and repetitive movements) spasticity, parkinsonism (slurred or slow speech, stiffness of the muscles, slow movement, and visible tremors), inability to coordinate movements (ataxia), neuropsychiatric abnormalities (confusion, disorientation, seizures, stupor, dementia), and eye problems, such as optic atrophy or retinal degeneration. The age of onset ranges from infancy to late adulthood, and the rate of progression varies. Some subtypes have cognitive decline. Cerebellar atrophy is common in many cases. There are ten recognized types of NBIA, classified according to the altered gene that causes the disease.
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA, formerly Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome) encompasses a group of rare neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive extrapyramidal dysfunction (dystonia, rigidity, choreoathetosis), iron accumulation in the brain and the presence of axonal spheroids, usually limited to the central nervous system. Epidemiology An estimated prevalence of 1-3/1,000,000 has been suggested based on observed cases in a population. The most common form of NBIA is pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN; see this term), which accounts for approximately 50% of cases. Clinical description NBIA can present as early onset with rapid progression: classic pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) and atypical neuroaxonal dystrophy (atypical NAD) (see these terms); or later onset with slower progression: atypical PKAN, neuroferritinopathy and aceruloplasminemia (see these terms). Idiopathic NBIA can have either type of onset and progression. Etiology Classic and atypical PKAN are caused by mutations in the PANK2 gene (20p13-p12.3), infantile and atypical neuroaxonal dystrophy are caused by mutation in the PLA2G6 gene (22q13.1), aceruloplasminemia is caused by mutation of the ceruloplasmin (CP) gene (3q23-q24) and neuroferritinopathy is caused by mutations in the ferritin light chain (FTL1) gene (19q13.3-q13.4).
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that nevus comedonicus (NC) is caused by somatic mutation in the NEK9 gene (609798) on chromosome 14q24. Description Nevus comedonicus (NC) is a rare type of epidermal nevus with predilection for the face and neck area. The condition develops within the first decade of life in most patients. NC is characterized by dilated, plugged follicular ostia containing lamellar keratinaceous material and grouped in a honeycomb pattern; the distribution of lesions may be unilateral, bilateral, linear, interrupted, segmental, or along the lines of Blaschko. NC may be nonpyogenic with an acne-like appearance or associated with the formation of cysts, papules, pustules, and abscesses.
A rare, syndromic nevus characterized by the association of typically unilateral, closely arranged, linear, slightly elevated, multiple, nevus comedonicus lesions located usually on the face, neck, trunk or limbs (with or without a central, dark, firm, hyperkeratotic plug and secondary acneiform lesions) with extracutaneous ocular, skeletal, and/or central nervous system abnormalities, such as ipsilateral cataract, corneal erosion, poly-/syndactyly, absent fifth finger, scoliosis, vertebral defects, corpus callosum agenesis, seizures, interhemispheric cyst, intellectual deficiency, and/or developmental delay.
Eosinophilic cystitis Specialty Urology Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare condition where eosinophiles are present in the bladder wall. Signs and symptoms are similar to a bladder infection. Its cause is not entirely clear; however, may be linked to food allergies, infections, and medications among others. Management Treatment involves avoiding the trigger if that can be determined. Prognosis Long term outcomes in children are generally good. References ^ a b c d Kramer, ed. by A. ... Clinical pediatric urology (4. ed.). London: Dunitz. p. 338. ISBN 9781901865639 .CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) ^ Popescu, OE; Landas, SK; Haas, GP (Feb 2009).
Eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is a rare inflammatory bladder condition caused by the build up of eosinophils in the bladder. The exact cause of this condition is not known. However, EC has been found in those with allergies and asthma, and in those with a history of bladder trauma or infection, open bladder surgery, or surgery for a bladder tumor. EC has also been found in those who take certain medications.
Reed (1969), Tumors of the Peripheral Nervous System, in Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, ed: Atlas of Tumor Pathology, 2nd series, fascicle 3, Washington, D.C.: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology ^ a b c Pulitzer DR, Reed RJ (October 1985). ... (eds.), Lever's Histopathology of the Skin (Ninth ed.), Philadelphia: Lippincott Raven, ISBN 978-0781773638 This Dermal and subcutaneous growths article is a stub.