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A number sign (#) is used with this entry because pachyonychia congenita-4 (PC4) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the KRT6B gene (148042) on chromosome 12q13. Description Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with the main clinical features of hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful and highly debilitating plantar keratoderma, oral leukokeratosis, and a variety of epidermal cysts. Although the condition had previously been subdivided clinically into Jadassohn-Lewandowsky PC type 1 and Jackson-Lawler PC type 2, patients with PC were later found to have a mixed constellation of both types, leading to a classification of PC based on genotype (summary by Sybert, 2010; Eliason et al., 2012; McLean et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pachyonychia congenita, see 167200. Historical Classification of Pachyonychia Congenita Gorlin et al. (1976) suggested that 2 distinct syndromes are subsumed under the designation pachyonychia congenita.
Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a rare genodermatosis predominantly featuring painful palmoplantar keratoderma, thickened nails, cysts and whitish oral mucosa. Epidemiology The prevalence is not known but approximately 1000 patients have been registered to date worldwide. Clinical description PC presents clinically as a spectrum of conditions. PC onset is variable with most cases manifesting soon after birth, others becoming clinically apparent only in late childhood and rarely in adulthood. The first signs of the disease usually are thickened nails or neonatal teeth.
Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a rare inherited condition that primarily affects the nails and skin. The fingernails and toenails may be thickened and abnormally shaped . Affected people can also develop painful calluses and blisters on the soles of their feet and less frequently on the palms of their hands ( palmoplantar keratoderma ). Additional features include white patches on the tongue and inside of the mouth (leukokeratosis); bumps around the elbows, knees, and waistline (follicular hyperkeratosis); and cysts of various types including steatocystoma. Features may vary among affected people depending on their specific mutation.
For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pachyonychia congenita, see 167200. Inheritance Chong-Hai and Rajagopalan (1977) suggested autosomal recessive inheritance of pachyonychia congenita in a 4-year-old Malaysian girl with first-cousin parents, although they recognized new dominant mutation as a possibility. See also Sivasundram et al. (1985). INHERITANCE - Autosomal recessive HEAD & NECK Mouth - No oral leukoplakia SKIN, NAILS, & HAIR Skin - Horny papules (face, leg, buttocks) - No palmoplantar hyperkeratosis - No hyperhidrosis Nails - Episodic inflammatory swelling of nail bed - Recurrent shedding of nails - Hard,thickened nails (pachyonychia) - Subungual hyperkeratosis MISCELLANEOUS - See also pachyonychia congenita, type 3 (PC1, 167200 ) ▲ Close
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because pachyonychia congenita-3 (PC3) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the keratin-6a gene (KRT6A; 148041) on chromosome 12q13. Description Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with the main clinical features of hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful and highly debilitating plantar keratoderma, oral leukokeratosis, and a variety of epidermal cysts. Although the condition had previously been subdivided clinically into Jadassohn-Lewandowsky PC type 1 and Jackson-Lawler PC type 2, patients with PC were later found to have a mixed constellation of both types, leading to a classification of PC based on genotype (summary by Sybert, 2010; Eliason et al., 2012; McLean et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pachyonychia congenita, see 167200. Historical Classification of Pachyonychia Congenita Gorlin et al. (1976) suggested that 2 distinct syndromes are subsumed under the designation pachyonychia congenita.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that pachyonychia congenita-2 (PC2) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the KRT17 gene (148069) on chromosome 17q21. Description Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with the main clinical features of hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful and highly debilitating plantar keratoderma, oral leukokeratosis, and a variety of epidermal cysts. Although the condition had previously been subdivided clinically into Jadassohn-Lewandowsky PC type 1 and Jackson-Lawler PC type 2, patients with PC were later found to have a mixed constellation of both types, leading to a classification of PC based on genotype (summary by Sybert, 2010; Eliason et al., 2012; McLean et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pachyonychia congenita, see 167200. Historical Classification of Pachyonychia Congenita Gorlin et al. (1976) suggested that 2 distinct syndromes are subsumed under the designation pachyonychia congenita.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because pachyonychia congenita-1 (PC1) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the keratin-16 gene (KRT16; 148067) on chromosome 17q21. Description Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with the main clinical features of hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful and highly debilitating plantar keratoderma, oral leukokeratosis, and a variety of epidermal cysts. Although the condition had previously been subdivided clinically into Jadassohn-Lewandowsky PC type 1 and Jackson-Lawler PC type 2, patients with PC were later found to have a mixed constellation of both types, leading to a classification of PC based on genotype (summary by Sybert, 2010; Eliason et al., 2012; McLean et al., 2011). Historical Classification of Pachyonychia Congenita Gorlin et al. (1976) suggested that 2 distinct syndromes are subsumed under the designation pachyonychia congenita. PC type 1, the Jadassohn-Lewandowsky type, shows oral leukokeratosis.
In Dogger Bank itch, sensitivity is acquired after repeated handling of the sea chervils that become entangled in fishing nets. [ citation needed ] The specific toxin responsible for the rash was determined to be the sulfur -bearing salt (2-hydroxyethyl) dimethylsulfoxonium chloride.  This salt is also found in some sea sponges and has potent in vitro activity against leukemia cells.  Treatment [ edit ] A study of two cases in 2001 suggests that the rash responds to oral ciclosporin . ... The sea chervil, abundant in the area, frequently came up with the fishing nets and had to be thrown back into the water. ... Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology . Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6 . ^ Bonnevie, P. (1948). ... Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B . 128 (1): 27–30. doi : 10.1016/S1096-4959(00)00316-X . CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( link ) ^ a b Bowers PW, Julian CG., PW; Julian, CG (2001). ... British Journal of Dermatology . 69 (3): 92–93. doi : 10.1111/j.1365-2133.1957.tb13235.x . v t e Medicine Specialties and subspecialties Surgery Cardiac surgery Cardiothoracic surgery Colorectal surgery Eye surgery General surgery Neurosurgery Oral and maxillofacial surgery Orthopedic surgery Hand surgery Otolaryngology ENT Pediatric surgery Plastic surgery Reproductive surgery Surgical oncology Transplant surgery Trauma surgery Urology Andrology Vascular surgery Internal medicine Allergy / Immunology Angiology Cardiology Endocrinology Gastroenterology Hepatology Geriatrics Hematology Hospital medicine Infectious disease Nephrology Oncology Pulmonology Rheumatology Obstetrics and gynaecology Gynaecology Gynecologic oncology Maternal–fetal medicine Obstetrics Reproductive endocrinology and infertility Urogynecology Diagnostic Radiology Interventional radiology Nuclear medicine Pathology Anatomical Clinical pathology Clinical chemistry Cytopathology Medical microbiology Transfusion medicine Other Addiction medicine Adolescent medicine Anesthesiology Dermatology Disaster medicine Diving medicine Emergency medicine Mass gathering medicine Family medicine General practice Hospital medicine Intensive care medicine Medical genetics Narcology Neurology Clinical neurophysiology Occupational medicine Ophthalmology Oral medicine Pain management Palliative care Pediatrics Neonatology Physical medicine and rehabilitation PM&R Preventive medicine Psychiatry Addiction psychiatry Radiation oncology Reproductive medicine Sexual medicine Sleep medicine Sports medicine Transplantation medicine Tropical medicine Travel medicine Venereology Medical education Medical school Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery Bachelor of Medical Sciences Master of Medicine Master of Surgery Doctor of Medicine Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine MD–PhD Related topics Alternative medicine Allied health Dentistry Podiatry Pharmacy Physiotherapy Molecular oncology Nanomedicine Personalized medicine Public health Rural health Therapy Traditional medicine Veterinary medicine Physician Chief physician History of medicine Book Category Commons Wikiproject Portal Outline
. ^ " exfoliatin " at Dorland's Medical Dictionary ^ Mockenhaupt M, Idzko M, Grosber M, Schöpf E, Norgauer J (April 2005). "Epidemiology of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in Germany". ... The Lancet . 156 (4011): 89–95. doi : 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)65681-7 . ^ Weisse, Martin E (31 December 2000). ... The Lancet . 357 (9252): 299–301. doi : 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)03623-0 . PMID 11214144 . S2CID 35896288 . ^ Powell, KR (January 1979). ... The Journal of Pediatrics . 78 (6): 958–67. doi : 10.1016/S0022-3476(71)80425-0 . PMID 4252715 . ^ Morens, David M; Katz, Alan R; Melish, Marian E (31 May 2001). ... The Lancet . 357 (9273): 2059. doi : 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)05151-5 . PMID 11441870 . S2CID 35925579 .
A rare staphylococcal toxemia caused by epidermolytic toxins of Staphylococcus aureus and characterized by the appearance of widespread erythematous patches, on which large blisters develop. Upon rupture of these blisters, the skin appears reddish and scalded. The lesions typically begin in the face and rapidly expand to other parts of the body. The disease may be complicated by pneumonia and sepsis. It most commonly affects newborns and infants.
Clinical Features Lisch et al. (1992) described 5 family members and 3 unrelated patients (4 males, 4 females), aged 23 to 71 years, with bilateral or unilateral, gray, band-shaped, and feathery opacities that sometimes appeared in whorled patterns. Retroillumination showed that the opacities consisted of intraepithelial, densely crowded, clear microcysts. Light and electron microscopy disclosed diffuse vacuolization of the cytoplasm of epithelial cells in the affected area. Visual acuity was so reduced in 3 patients that abrasion of the corneal epithelium was performed. The corneal abnormalities recurred within months, with the same reduction in visual acuity as before.
Lisch epithelial corneal dystrophy (LECD) is a very rare form of superficial corneal dystrophy characterized by feather-shaped opacities and microcysts in the corneal epithelium arranged in a band-shaped and sometimes whorled pattern, occasionally with impaired vision. Epidemiology Exact prevalence of this form of corneal dystrophy is not known but very few cases have been reported to date. LECD has been documented in one German family and in rare sporadic cases in Germany and the USA. Clinical description Lesions generally develop in childhood. Epithelial opacities are slowly progressive and painless blurred vision sometimes occurs after 60 years of age. Etiology The exact cause is unknown but appears to be genetic. The gene related to Lisch epithelial corneal dystrophy has been mapped to the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp22.3).
Washington, DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 1994; 101–135. ^ a b c d e f Chung, Ellen M.; Specht, Charles S.; Schroeder, Jason W. ... RadioGraphics . 27 (4): 1159–1186. doi : 10.1148/rg.274075014 . PMID 17620473 . ^ a b c d e f Shields, Jerry A.; Eagle, Ralph C.; Shields, Carol L.; De Potter, Patrick (December 1996). ... American Journal of Ophthalmology . 130 (3): 364–366. doi : 10.1016/S0002-9394(00)00542-0 . ^ a b c d e Vajaranant, Thasarat S.; Mafee, Mahmood F.; Kapur, Rashmi; Rapoport, Mark; Edward, Deepak P. ... PMID 3554332 . ^ De Potter, Patrick; Shield, Carol L.; Shields, Jerry A.; Flanders, Adam E. (November 1996). "The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Children with Intraocular Tumors and Simulating Lesions". ... American Journal of Ophthalmology . 133 (6): 841–843. doi : 10.1016/S0002-9394(02)01432-0 . ^ Janss, Anna J.; Yachnis, Anthony T.; Silber, Jeffrey H.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.
Medulloepithelioma of the central nervous system is a rare, primitive neuroectodermal tumor characterized by papillary, tubular and trabecular arrangements of neoplastic neuroepithelium, mimicking the embryonic neural tube, most commonly found in the periventricular region within the cerebral hemispheres, but has also been reported in brainstem and cerebellum. It usually presents in childhood with headache, nausea, vomiting, facial nerve paresis, and/or cerebellar ataxia, and typically has a progressive course, highly malignant behavior and poor prognosis. Hearing and visual loss have also been observed.
Characteristics [ edit ] Botellón usually begins around 11:00 p.m. and ends around 3:00 a.m. when many people move to a bar or club. ... Since botellón is usually a nighttime activity, Spain passed a law that prohibits stores to sell alcohol to the public after 10:00 p.m, hoping to persuade people to attend clubs or bars where alcohol must remain on site. [ citation needed ] However, the measure is a controversial one because people can still buy alcohol before the selling limit hour and consume it in public. ... One example of a macro-botellón was on 17 March 2006, "Half of Spain [met] on the net to organize a macro-botellón".  The macro-botellón was organized in cities around Spain, such as Madrid, Barcelona, Sevilla, Oviedo, Murcia, Vitoria, Málaga, Córdoba, Granada, and Jaén.  One of the purposes of the macro-botellón on 17 March 2006, near the Faro de Moncloa in Madrid, Spain, was to protest against the municipal restrictions on drinking alcohol in the streets. ... CS1 maint: archived copy as title ( link ) ^ "Media España se cita en la Red para celebrar un macrobotellón el 17 de marzo" . 2006-03-07. ^ http://www.20minutos.es/noticia/97295/0/macrobotellones/ciudades/espana/ | Literally translated from Spanish ^ "El Ayuntamiento "no consentirá" el macrobotellón que se prepara en Moncloa" . 2006-03-07.
. ^ "Deaths in the district of Inveresk and Musselburgh in the County of Edinburgh" . Statutory Deaths 689/00 0032 . ScotlandsPeople . Retrieved 11 April 2015 . External links [ edit ] Classification D ICD-O : 8011/0, 8011/3 Wikimedia Commons has media related to Epithelioma .
ISBN 3-7186-5857-7 . ^ a b c Zuber, Thomas J.; E. J. Mayeaux (2004). Atlas of Primary Care Procedures . Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 254–256. ISBN 0-7817-3905-5 . ^ a b c d e f g h i Smith, Melanie N. (2006-05-10). ... Cambridge University Press . p. 77. ISBN 1-900151-51-0 . ^ Papadakis, Maxine A.; Stephen J. ... McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 60. ISBN 0-07-145892-1 . ^ a b Bosze, Peter; David M. ... Informa Health Care. p. 66. ISBN 963-00-7356-0 . ^ "Cervical Polyps" (PDF) .
Antibody titers to EBV were measured in 14 of these patients and only five had abnormal antibody patterns consistent with chronic active EBV infection.  Treatment [ edit ] Antiviral treatment has been tried with some success in a small number of patients.  See also [ edit ] List of cutaneous conditions Epstein-Barr virus References [ edit ] ^ Bazin, E (1862). "Lecons theoriques et cliniques sur les affectations generiques de la peau". ... Feb, 42(2 Pt 1) (2): 208–13. doi : 10.1016/s0190-9622(00)90127-0 . PMID 10642674 . ^ James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology . Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0 . ^ Rezk SA, Zhao X, Weiss LM (September 2018). ... External links [ edit ] Classification D ICD - 10 : L56.860 ( ILDS L56.860) ICD - 9-CM : 692.79 MeSH : D006837 DiseasesDB : 33843 External resources eMedicine : article/1119445 Orphanet : 330058 v t e Radiation-related disorders / Photodermatoses Ultraviolet / ionizing Sunburn Phytophotodermatitis Solar urticaria Polymorphous light eruption Benign summer light eruption Juvenile spring eruption Acne aestivalis Hydroa vacciniforme Solar erythema Non-ionizing Actinic rays Actinic keratosis Atrophic actinic keratosis Hyperkeratotic actinic keratosis Lichenoid actinic keratosis Pigmented actinic keratosis Actinic cheilitis Actinic granuloma Actinic prurigo Chronic actinic dermatitis Infrared / heat Erythema ab igne ( Kangri ulcer Kairo cancer Kang cancer Peat fire cancer ) Cutis rhomboidalis nuchae Poikiloderma of Civatte Other Radiation dermatitis Acute Chronic radiodermatitis ) Favre–Racouchot syndrome Photoaging Photosensitivity with HIV infection Phototoxic tar dermatitis
A rare photodermatosis characterized by the development of pruritic or painful vesicles in a photodistributed pattern in response to sunlight exposure. The lesions heal with permanent varioliform scarring. Ocular involvement, deformities of ears and nose, or contractures of the fingers may occasionally be observed. Systemic signs and symptoms are absent. The condition typically occurs in childhood and regresses spontaneously in adolescence or young adulthood.
Clin Dermatol . 19 (1): 69–71. doi : 10.1016/S0738-081X(00)00215-7 . PMID 11369491 . ^ "Drugs that call for extra caution. ... New York: Simon Schuster. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-684-87309-1 . ^ M.d. Kamath, Bob (30 May 2007). ... Kendall Hunt Publishing. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-7872-8701-6 . ^ Ashton CH (2002).
With giant hemangiomas in small children, thrombocytopenia and red cell changes compatible with trauma ('microangiopathic hemolytic anemia') have been observed. The mechanism of the hematologic changes is obscure. No evidence of a simple genetic basis has been discovered. Propp and Scharfman (1966) reported a male infant with thrombocytopenia associated with a large hemangioma of the right arm and axilla. The patient had low platelet counts with a markedly diminished platelet survival time and an absence of platelet agglutinin or complement-fixing antibody. Radiochromate-tagged platelet studies suggested sequestration in the hemangioma, liver, and spleen.
Hemangioma thrombocytopenia syndrome is characterized by profound thrombocytopenia in association with two rare vascular tumors: kaposiform hemangioendotheliomas and tufted angiomas . The profound thrombocytopenia can cause life threatening bleeding and progress to a disseminated coagulopathy in patients with these tumors. The condition typically occurs in early infancy or childhood, although prenatal cases (diagnosed with the aid of ultrasonography), newborn presentations, and rare adult cases have been reported.
Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS), also known as hemangioma-thrombocytopenia syndrome, is a rare disorder characterized by profound thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and subsequent consumptive coagulopathy in association with vascular tumors, particularly kaposiform hemangioendothelioma or tufted angioma.
Guttate psoriasis is a skin condition in which small, red, and scaly teardrop-shaped spots appear on the arms, legs, and middle of the body. It is a relatively uncommon form of psoriasis . The condition often develops very suddenly, and is usually triggered by an infection (e.g., strep throat, bacteria infection, upper respiratory infections or other viral infections). Other triggers include injury to the skin, including cuts, burns, and insect bites, certain malarial and heart medications, stress, sunburn, and excessive alcohol consumption. Treatment depends on the severity of the symptoms, ranging from at-home over the counter remedies to medicines that suppress the body's immune system to sunlight and phototherapy.
Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 1150. ISBN 0-7817-2655-7 . Retrieved 2008-06-16 . ^ a b c d e f Scalea TM (2005). ... Boca Raton: CRC. pp. 26–32. ISBN 978-0-8493-8138-6 . Retrieved 2008-07-06 . ^ a b Porth, Carol (2007). ... Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 838. ISBN 978-0-7817-7087-3 . Retrieved 2008-07-03 . ^ Pitkänen A, McIntosh TK (2006). ... Journal of Neurotrauma . 23 (2): 241–261. doi : 10.1089/neu.2006.23.241 . PMID 16503807 . ^ a b c d e LaPlaca MC, Simon CM, Prado GR, Cullen DR (2007). ... Neuroscience . 101 (2): 289–95. doi : 10.1016/S0306-4522(00)00380-8 . PMID 11074152 . S2CID 20457228 . ^ Sauaia A, Moore FA, Moore EE, et al.
The mutation that leads to a deficiency in arylsulfatase E. (ARSE) occurs in the coding region of the gene. ... Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine . (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-138076-0 . ^ Malou, E.; Gekas, J.; Troucelier-Lucas, V.; Mornet, E.; Razafimanantsoa, L.; Cuvelier, B.; Mathieu, M.; Thépot, F. (2001-02-01). ... Archives de Pédiatrie . 8 (2): 176–180. doi : 10.1016/S0929-693X(00)00181-0 . ISSN 0929-693X . PMID 11232459 . ^ Casarin, Alberto; Rusalen, Francesca; Doimo, Mara; Trevisson, Eva; Carraro, Silvia; Clementi, Maurizio; Tenconi, Romano; Baraldi, Eugenio; Salviati, Leonardo (2009-11-01). ... S2CID 23242273 . ^ a b c Braverman, Nancy E.; Bober, Michael; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Oswald, Gretchen L. (1993-01-01). ... "Clinical and molecular analysis of arylsulfatase E in patients with brachytelephalangic chondrodysplasia punctata".
ISBN 978-3-540-41077-5 . ^ Chiang C, Litingtung Y, Lee E, Young KE, Corden JL, Westphal H, Beachy PA (October 1996). ... Current Opinion in Genetics & Development . 10 (3): 262–9. doi : 10.1016/s0959-437x(00)00084-8 . PMID 10826992 . ^ Rash BG, Grove EA (October 2007). ... Archived from the original on 2009-05-14. ^ Armand Marie Leroi , Mutants : On the Form, Varieties and Errors of the Human Body , 2003, Harper Perennial, London. ISBN 0-00-653164-4 ^ The Carter Center for Research in holoprosencephaly  and  Archived 2008-11-21 at the Wayback Machine ^ Hong M, Srivastava K, Kim S, Allen BL, Leahy DJ, Hu P, Roessler E, Krauss RS, Muenke M (2017) BOC is a modifier gene in holoprosencephaly. ... Human Genetics . 125 (1): 95–103. doi : 10.1007/s00439-008-0599-0 . PMC 2692056 . PMID 19057928 . ^ Tekendo-Ngongang C, Muenke M, Kruszka P (1993). ... American Journal of Medical Genetics . 102 (1): 1–10. doi : 10.1002/1096-8628(20010722)102:1<1::aid-ajmg1336>3.0.co;2-u . PMID 11471164 . ^ a b c d e Croen LA, Shaw GM, Lammer EJ (February 2000).
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because it represents a contiguous gene deletion syndrome. A form of holoprosencephaly (HPE10) has been mapped within the deleted region of chromosome 1q41-q42. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100). See also congenital diaphragmatic hernia (DIH; 142340), which has been associated with deletion of chromosome 1q41-q42. See also Skraban-Deardorff syndrome (SKDEAS; 617616), caused by mutation in the WDR26 gene (617424) on chromosome 1q42, which shows overlapping features with chromosome 1q41-q42 deletion syndrome.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that holoprosencephaly-4 (HPE4) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the TGIF gene (602630) on chromosome 18p11. For phenotypic information and a general discussion of genetic heterogeneity in holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100). Cytogenetics Johnson and Bachman (1976) described a normal female who appeared to have a nonreciprocal translocation from the short arm of one chromosome 18 to the long arm of a chromosome 12. She gave birth to a cebocephalic child whose karyotype included an 18p- chromosome. The association of loss of 18p with holoprosencephaly was suggested by the patient reported by Munke et al. (1988); cytogenetic and molecular studies indicated a Y/18 translocation with loss of 18p and distal Yq material in a holoprosencephalic fetus.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because holoprosencephaly-11 (HPE11) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the CDON gene (608707) on chromosome 11q24. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100). Clinical Features Bae et al. (2011) reported 4 unrelated patients with HPE11. One patient had agenesis of the corpus callosum, hypotelorism, growth hormone deficiency, global developmental delay, and thick eyebrows with synophrys. Another had agenesis of the corpus callosum, alobar HPE, hypotelorism, cleft lip/palate, and absent columella; absent pituitary and polysplenia were noted in this patient at autopsy.
For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100). Clinical Features Levin and Surana (1991) described holoprosencephaly in association with an interstitial deletion of chromosome 14q11.1-q13. Parental karyotypes were normal. The white female, born to nonconsanguineous young parents after an uncomplicated pregnancy, showed hypotelorism, lack of nasal bridge, flattened nasal tip with no visible septum, wide midline cleft of lip and hard palate, and ptosis of the left upper eyelid. Axial CT scan of the head was interpreted as showing semilobar holoprosencephaly. The infant died at 8 days of age. Kamnasaran et al. (2005) reported 6 patients with HPE and interstitial deletions on proximal chromosome 14q: 1 had alobar HPE and 5 had lobar HPE.
For phenotypic information and a general discussion of genetic heterogeneity in holoprosencephaly (HPE), see HPE1 (236100). Clinical Features Lehman et al. (2001) described a female infant who survived for 5.5 hours after delivery at 33 weeks' gestation. Autopsy showed a lobar variant of holoprosencephaly. Cytogenetics By cytogenetic analysis in an infant with a lobar variant of holoprosencephaly, Lehman et al. (2001) identified a 2q37.1-q37.3 deletion. This case represented the fourth reported case of HPE associated with partial monosomy 2q37 and the first with an apparently isolated 2q37 deletion. Lehman et al. (2001) suggested that the deleted segment may contain yet another locus, here designated HPE6, which, when disrupted, can lead to brain malformations within the HPE spectrum.
Nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly is an abnormality of brain development that also affects the head and face. Normally, the brain divides into two halves (hemispheres ) during early development. Holoprosencephaly occurs when the brain fails to divide properly into the right and left hemispheres. This condition is called nonsyndromic to distinguish it from other types of holoprosencephaly caused by genetic syndromes, chromosome abnormalities, or substances that cause birth defects (teratogens). The severity of nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly varies widely among affected individuals, even within the same family.
Holoprosencephaly is an abnormality of brain development in which the brain doesn't properly divide into the right and left hemispheres. The condition can also affect development of the head and face. There are 4 types of holoprosencephaly, distinguished by severity. From most to least severe, the 4 types are alobar, semi-lobar, lobar, and middle interhemispheric variant (MIHV). In general, the severity of any facial defects corresponds to the severity of the brain defect. The most severely affected people have one central eye (cyclopia) and a tubular nasal structure (proboscis) located above the eye.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that holoprosencephaly-3 (HPE3) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the SHH gene (600725), which encodes the human Sonic hedgehog homolog, on chromosome 7q36. For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100). Clinical Features Berry et al. (1984) and Johnson (1989) provided information on a family (family 2 in Johnson, 1989) in which holoprosencephaly occurred in 2 sibs and their first cousin, who were offspring of parents with a single central maxillary incisor. Johnson (1989) reported a second patient (family 1) with full-blown holoprosencephaly whose mother and sister had only a single central maxillary incisor. Johnson (1989) suggested that holoprosencephaly is a developmental field defect of which the mild forms can be single median incisor, hypotelorism, bifid uvula, or pituitary deficiency.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that holoprosencephaly-7 (HPE7) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the PTCH1 gene (601309) on chromosome 9q22. For phenotypic information and a general discussion of genetic heterogeneity in holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100). Description Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most commonly occurring congenital structural forebrain anomaly in humans. HPE is associated with mental retardation and craniofacial malformations. Considerable heterogeneity in the genetic causes of HPE has been demonstrated (Ming et al., 2002).
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) and SMMCI syndrome are caused by heterozygous mutation in the Sonic hedgehog gene (SHH; 600725) on chromosome 7q36. Clinical Features Rappaport et al. (1976, 1977) reported 7 unrelated patients with single (unpaired) deciduous and permanent maxillary central incisors and short stature. Five of them had isolated growth hormone deficiency. The other 2 had normal growth hormone responses but were short of stature. No similar or possibly related abnormalities were present in the 7 families. Rappaport et al. (1976) used the term monosuperoincisivodontic dwarfism to describe the association of short stature and solitary incisor.
Description Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common structural malformation of the human forebrain and occurs after failed or abbreviated midline cleavage of the developing brain during the third and fourth weeks of gestation. HPE occurs in up to 1 in 250 gestations, but only 1 in 8,000 live births (Lacbawan et al., 2009). Classically, 3 degrees of severity defined by the extent of brain malformation have been described. In the most severe form, 'alobar HPE,' there is a single ventricle and no interhemispheric fissure. The olfactory bulbs and tracts and the corpus callosum are typically absent.
A rare complex brain malformation characterized by incomplete cleavage of the prosencephalon, and affecting both the forebrain and face and resulting in neurological manifestations and facial anomalies of variable severity. Epidemiology Prevalence is estimated to be 1/10,000 live and still births and 1/250 conceptuses, with worldwide distribution. Clinical description Three classical forms of holoprosencephaly (HPE) of increasing severity are described based on the degree of anatomical separation: lobar, semi-lobar and alobar HPE. Milder subtypes include midline interhemispheric variant and septopreoptic HPE. There is, however, a continuous spectrum of abnormal separation of the hemispheres that extends from aprosencephaly/atelencephaly, the most severe end of the spectrum, to microform HPE, a less severe midline defect without the typical HPE brain characteristics.
Retrieved 24 May 2020 . ^ a b c d Bartholomew, Robert E.; Victor, Jeffrey S. (Spring 2004). ... Archived from the original on 2006-06-20 . Retrieved 2006-11-01 . ^ a b c d e f g h i j Clark, Jerome (1993). Unexplained! ... Archived from the original on 2006-08-27 . Retrieved 2006-10-01 . ^ a b c d e Taylor, Troy (2002). Into the shadows . ... Borderlands: The ultimate exploration of the unknown . Overlook. ISBN 0-87951-724-7 . ^ Janet, Pierre (1965). ... Detroit: Visible Ink Press. pp. 239 . ISBN 0-8103-9436-7 . ^ Do Go On. "146 - The Mad Gasser of Mattoon" .
Axenfeld–Rieger syndrome Other names Axenfeld syndrome, Hagedoom syndrome a) Microdontia and hypodontia . b) Slit pupil and iris atrophy right eye. c) Corectopia with iris atrophy left eye. d) Posterior embryotoxon right eye. e) Posterior embryotoxon left eye. f) Broad peripheral anterior synechiae right eye.  Specialty Medical genetics Axenfeld–Rieger syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant  disorder, which affects the development of the teeth, eyes, and abdominal region.  Contents 1 Pathophysiology 2 Diagnosis 2.1 Classification 3 Management 4 Eponym 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links Pathophysiology [ edit ] Axenfeld–Rieger syndrome has an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance.  The molecular genetics of Axenfeld–Rieger syndrome are poorly understood, but center on three genes identified by cloning of chromosomal breakpoints from patients.   This disorder is inheritable as an autosomal dominant trait,  which means the defective gene is located on an autosome , and only one copy of the gene is sufficient to cause the disorder when inherited from a parent who has the disorder. ... Glaucoma develops during adolescence or late childhood, but often occurs in infancy.   In addition, a prominent Schwalbe's line , an opaque ring around the cornea known as posterior embryotoxon, may arise with hypoplasia of the iris.  Below average height and stature, stunted development of the mid-facial features and mental deficiencies may also be observed in patients.  See also [ edit ] Primary juvenile glaucoma SHORT syndrome Autosome Chorionic villus sampling Amniocentesis Preimplantation genetic diagnosis References [ edit ] ^ Dhir, L; Frimpong-Ansah, K; Habib, Nabil E (2008). "Missed case of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome: a case report" . ... Kanski's clinical ophthalmology : a systematic approach (9th ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7020-7713-5 . OCLC 1131846767 . ^ a b c Lowry, R. ... Medical Intelligence Unit. Springer. doi : 10.1007/0-387-28672-1 . ISBN 978-0-387-28672-3 . ... American Journal of Ophthalmology . 130 (1): 107–15. doi : 10.1016/S0002-9394(00)00525-0 . PMID 11004268 . External links [ edit ] Classification D ICD - 9-CM : 743.44 MeSH : C535679 DiseasesDB : 30800 Axenfeld Rieger syndrome at NIH 's Office of Rare Diseases Axenfeld Rieger anomaly with cardiac defects and sensorineural hearing loss at NIH 's Office of Rare Diseases v t e Congenital malformations and deformations of eyes Adnexa Eyelid Ptosis Ectropion Entropion Distichia Blepharophimosis Ablepharon Marcus Gunn phenomenon Lacrimal apparatus Congenital lacrimal duct obstruction Globe Entire eye Anophthalmia ( Cystic eyeball , Cryptophthalmos ) Microphthalmia Lens Ectopia lentis Aphakia Iris Aniridia Anterior segment Axenfeld–Rieger syndrome Cornea Keratoglobus Megalocornea Other Buphthalmos Coloboma ( Coloboma of optic nerve ) Hydrophthalmos Norrie disease v t e Genetic disorders relating to deficiencies of transcription factor or coregulators (1) Basic domains 1.2 Feingold syndrome Saethre–Chotzen syndrome 1.3 Tietz syndrome (2) Zinc finger DNA-binding domains 2.1 ( Intracellular receptor ): Thyroid hormone resistance Androgen insensitivity syndrome PAIS MAIS CAIS Kennedy's disease PHA1AD pseudohypoaldosteronism Estrogen insensitivity syndrome X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita MODY 1 Familial partial lipodystrophy 3 SF1 XY gonadal dysgenesis 2.2 Barakat syndrome Tricho–rhino–phalangeal syndrome 2.3 Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome / Pallister–Hall syndrome Denys–Drash syndrome Duane-radial ray syndrome MODY 7 MRX 89 Townes–Brocks syndrome Acrocallosal syndrome Myotonic dystrophy 2 2.5 Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (3) Helix-turn-helix domains 3.1 ARX Ohtahara syndrome Lissencephaly X2 MNX1 Currarino syndrome HOXD13 SPD1 synpolydactyly PDX1 MODY 4 LMX1B Nail–patella syndrome MSX1 Tooth and nail syndrome OFC5 PITX2 Axenfeld syndrome 1 POU4F3 DFNA15 POU3F4 DFNX2 ZEB1 Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy Fuchs' dystrophy 3 ZEB2 Mowat–Wilson syndrome 3.2 PAX2 Papillorenal syndrome PAX3 Waardenburg syndrome 1&3 PAX4 MODY 9 PAX6 Gillespie syndrome Coloboma of optic nerve PAX8 Congenital hypothyroidism 2 PAX9 STHAG3 3.3 FOXC1 Axenfeld syndrome 3 Iridogoniodysgenesis, dominant type FOXC2 Lymphedema–distichiasis syndrome FOXE1 Bamforth–Lazarus syndrome FOXE3 Anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis FOXF1 ACD/MPV FOXI1 Enlarged vestibular aqueduct FOXL2 Premature ovarian failure 3 FOXP3 IPEX 3.5 IRF6 Van der Woude syndrome Popliteal pterygium syndrome (4) β-Scaffold factors with minor groove contacts 4.2 Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome 4.3 Holt–Oram syndrome Li–Fraumeni syndrome Ulnar–mammary syndrome 4.7 Campomelic dysplasia MODY 3 MODY 5 SF1 SRY XY gonadal dysgenesis Premature ovarian failure 7 SOX10 Waardenburg syndrome 4c Yemenite deaf-blind hypopigmentation syndrome 4.11 Cleidocranial dysostosis (0) Other transcription factors 0.6 Kabuki syndrome Ungrouped TCF4 Pitt–Hopkins syndrome ZFP57 TNDM1 TP63 Rapp–Hodgkin syndrome / Hay–Wells syndrome / Ectrodactyly–ectodermal dysplasia–cleft syndrome 3 / Limb–mammary syndrome / OFC8 Transcription coregulators Coactivator: CREBBP Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome Corepressor: HR ( Atrichia with papular lesions )
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome type 1 (RIEG1) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the homeobox transcription factor gene PITX2 (601542) on chromosome 4q25. Description Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of morphogenesis that results in abnormal development of the anterior segment of the eye, and results in blindness from glaucoma in approximately 50% of affected individuals (Fitch and Kaback, 1978). Systemic anomalies are associated, including dental hypoplasia, failure of involution of periumbilical skin, and maxillary hypoplasia (Alkemade, 1969). Genetic Heterogeneity of Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome Linkage studies indicate that a second type of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome maps to chromosome 13q14 (RIEG2; 601499). A third form of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (RIEG3; 602482) is caused by mutation in the FOXC1 gene (601090) on chromosome 6p25.
Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS) is a generic term used to designate overlapping genetic disorders, in which the major physical condition is anterior segment dysgenesis of the eye. Patients with ARS may also present with multiple variable congenital anomalies. Epidemiology The syndrome has an estimated prevalence of 1/200,000. Clinical description The clinical manifestations of ARS are highly variable. Features can be divided into ocular and non-ocular findings. Ocular abnormalities mainly affect the iris: hypoplasia, corectopia or hole formation in the iris mimicking polycoria; cornea: prominent and anteriorly displaced Schwalbe's line (posterior embryotoxon); and the chamber angle: iris strands bridging the iridocorneal angle to the trabecular meshwork. Eye dysgenesis in ARS may cause increased ocular pressure (IOP) leading to glaucoma.
Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is a group of disorders that mainly affects the development of the eye. Common eye symptoms include cornea defects and iris defects. People with this syndrome may have an off-center pupil (corectopia) or extra holes in the eyes that can look like multiple pupils (polycoria). About 50% of people with this syndrome develop glaucoma, a condition that increases pressure inside of the eye, and may cause vision loss or blindness. Click here to view a diagram of the eye. Even though Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is primarily an eye disorder, this syndrome can affect other parts of the body. Most people with this syndrome have distinctive facial features and many have issues with their teeth, including unusually small teeth (microdontia) or fewer than normal teeth (oligodontia).
Description Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is a disorder of morphogenesis that results in abnormal development of the anterior segment of the eye, which results in blindness from glaucoma in approximately 50% of affected individuals. Systemic abnormalities, including cardiac and dental anomalies, are associated. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity and nomenclature of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, see RIEG1 (180500). Mapping Deletion of 13q14 was described in 2 cases of Rieger syndrome (Akazawa et al., 1981; Stathacopoulos et al., 1987). Phillips et al. (1996) performed linkage analysis of a large 4-generation family and demonstrated that Rieger syndrome was not linked to 4q25 but to markers on 13q14.
A common mnemonic used to remember the symptoms is FATED: coarse or leonine f acies , cold staph a bscesses, retained primary t eeth, increased Ig E , and d ermatologic problems [eczema]. ... ISBN 978-1-4160-2999-1 . ^ " hyperimmunoglobulinemia E syndrome " at Dorland's Medical Dictionary ^ Dermatologic Manifestations of Job Syndrome at eMedicine ^ Borges WG, Augustine NH, Hill HR (February 2000). "Defective interleukin-12/interferon-gamma pathway in patients with hyperimmunoglobulinemia E syndrome". The Journal of Pediatrics . 136 (2): 176–80. doi : 10.1016/S0022-3476(00)70098-9 . ... "High-dose intravenous gamma-globulin treatment for hyperimmunoglobulinemia E syndrome". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology . 95 (3): 771–4. doi : 10.1016/S0091-6749(95)70185-0 . ... PMID 4161105 . ^ Buckley RH, Wray BB, Belmaker EZ (January 1972). "Extreme hyperimmunoglobulinemia E and undue susceptibility to infection".
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because autosomal recessive hyper-IgE recurrent infection syndrome-2 (HIES2) is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the DOCK8 gene (611432) on chromosome 9p24. Description Autosomal dominant hyper-IgE recurrent infection syndrome-1 (HIES1; 147060) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder characterized by recurrent Staphylococcus aureus skin abscesses, increased serum IgE, and abnormalities of the connective tissue, skeleton, and dentition (Buckley et al., 1972; Grimbacher et al., 1999). Autosomal recessive HIES2 shares hyper-IgE, eosinophilia, and recurrent Staphylococcal infections, but is distinguished from autosomal dominant HIES1 by the lack of connective tissue and skeletal involvement (Renner et al., 2004). See also TYK2 deficiency (611521), a clinically distinct disease entity that includes characteristic features of both autosomal recessive HIES2 and mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD; 209950) (Minegishi et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hyper-IgE recurrent infection syndrome, see 147060.
DOCK8 immunodeficiency syndrome is characterized by abnormally high levels of an immune system protein called immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the blood; the levels can be more than 10 times higher than normal for no known reason.
Autosomal recessive hyper IgE syndrome (AR-HIES) is a very rare primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by highly elevated blood levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) , recurrent staphylococcal skin abscesses , and recurrent pneumonia .
Combined immunodeficiency due to dedicator of cytokinesis 8 protein (DOCK8) deficiency is a form of T and B cell immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent cutaneous viral infections, susceptibility to cancer and elevated serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE). Epidemiology Prevalence is unknown.
DOCK8 deficiency Other names Combined immunodeficiency due to dedicator of cytokinesis 8 protein deficiency, CID due to DOCK8 deficiency DOCKS deficiency is autosomal recessive DOCK8 deficiency , also called DOCK8 immunodeficiency syndrome , is the autosomal recessive form of hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome , a genetic disorder characterized by elevated immunoglobulin E levels, eosinophilia , and recurrent infections with staphylococcus and viruses. ... There are a variety of loss-of-function mutations in DOCK8 that can cause deficiency and hyperimmunoglobulin E, including frameshift mutations , nonsense mutations , microdeletions , and, most commonly, large deletions.   The low number of T cells ( T cell lymphopenia ) and other lymphocytes appears to be responsible for the susceptibility to infections, and the poor humoral immunity is responsible for low response to vaccines. ... CNS and vascular complications are other common causes of death.  Epidemiology [ edit ] DOCK8 deficiency is very rare,  estimated to be found in less than one person per million;  there have been 32 patients diagnosed as of 2012.  History [ edit ] DOCK8 deficiency was first described in 2004.  The mutation was discovered in 2009.  References [ edit ] ^ a b c d e "OMIM Entry - # 243700 - HYPER-IgE RECURRENT INFECTION SYNDROME, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE" . www.omim.org . ... Orphanet . Retrieved 2015-07-26 . ^ a b c d e f g h i Szczawinska-Poplonyk, Aleksandra; Kycler, Zdzislawa; Pietrucha, Barbara; Heropolitanska-Pliszka, Edyta; Breborowicz, Anna; Gerreth, Karolina (2011-01-01). "The hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome--clinical manifestation diversity in primary immune deficiency" .