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A number sign (#) is used with this entry because pachyonychia congenita-4 (PC4) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the KRT6B gene (148042) on chromosome 12q13. Description Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with the main clinical features of hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful and highly debilitating plantar keratoderma, oral leukokeratosis, and a variety of epidermal cysts. Although the condition had previously been subdivided clinically into Jadassohn-Lewandowsky PC type 1 and Jackson-Lawler PC type 2, patients with PC were later found to have a mixed constellation of both types, leading to a classification of PC based on genotype (summary by Sybert, 2010; Eliason et al., 2012; McLean et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pachyonychia congenita, see 167200. Historical Classification of Pachyonychia Congenita Gorlin et al. (1976) suggested that 2 distinct syndromes are subsumed under the designation pachyonychia congenita.
Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a rare inherited condition that primarily affects the nails and skin. The fingernails and toenails may be thickened and abnormally shaped . Affected people can also develop painful calluses and blisters on the soles of their feet and less frequently on the palms of their hands ( palmoplantar keratoderma ). Additional features include white patches on the tongue and inside of the mouth (leukokeratosis); bumps around the elbows, knees, and waistline (follicular hyperkeratosis); and cysts of various types including steatocystoma. Features may vary among affected people depending on their specific mutation.
For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pachyonychia congenita, see 167200. Inheritance Chong-Hai and Rajagopalan (1977) suggested autosomal recessive inheritance of pachyonychia congenita in a 4-year-old Malaysian girl with first-cousin parents, although they recognized new dominant mutation as a possibility. See also Sivasundram et al. (1985). INHERITANCE - Autosomal recessive HEAD & NECK Mouth - No oral leukoplakia SKIN, NAILS, & HAIR Skin - Horny papules (face, leg, buttocks) - No palmoplantar hyperkeratosis - No hyperhidrosis Nails - Episodic inflammatory swelling of nail bed - Recurrent shedding of nails - Hard,thickened nails (pachyonychia) - Subungual hyperkeratosis MISCELLANEOUS - See also pachyonychia congenita, type 3 (PC1, 167200 ) ▲ Close
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because pachyonychia congenita-3 (PC3) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the keratin-6a gene (KRT6A; 148041) on chromosome 12q13. Description Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with the main clinical features of hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful and highly debilitating plantar keratoderma, oral leukokeratosis, and a variety of epidermal cysts. Although the condition had previously been subdivided clinically into Jadassohn-Lewandowsky PC type 1 and Jackson-Lawler PC type 2, patients with PC were later found to have a mixed constellation of both types, leading to a classification of PC based on genotype (summary by Sybert, 2010; Eliason et al., 2012; McLean et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pachyonychia congenita, see 167200. Historical Classification of Pachyonychia Congenita Gorlin et al. (1976) suggested that 2 distinct syndromes are subsumed under the designation pachyonychia congenita.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that pachyonychia congenita-2 (PC2) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the KRT17 gene (148069) on chromosome 17q21. Description Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with the main clinical features of hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful and highly debilitating plantar keratoderma, oral leukokeratosis, and a variety of epidermal cysts. Although the condition had previously been subdivided clinically into Jadassohn-Lewandowsky PC type 1 and Jackson-Lawler PC type 2, patients with PC were later found to have a mixed constellation of both types, leading to a classification of PC based on genotype (summary by Sybert, 2010; Eliason et al., 2012; McLean et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pachyonychia congenita, see 167200. Historical Classification of Pachyonychia Congenita Gorlin et al. (1976) suggested that 2 distinct syndromes are subsumed under the designation pachyonychia congenita.
Connors et al. (2001) described a young girl with clinical features of pachyonychia congenita type 1 in whom the typical skin and nail changes were not noted until the age of 6 years. Direct sequencing of the KRT16 gene revealed a novel lys354 to asn mutation (K354N; 148067.0008) in the central 2B domain of the KRT16 polypeptide.
In Dogger Bank itch, sensitivity is acquired after repeated handling of the sea chervils that become entangled in fishing nets. [ citation needed ] The specific toxin responsible for the rash was determined to be the sulfur -bearing salt (2-hydroxyethyl) dimethylsulfoxonium chloride.  This salt is also found in some sea sponges and has potent in vitro activity against leukemia cells.  Treatment [ edit ] A study of two cases in 2001 suggests that the rash responds to oral ciclosporin . ... The sea chervil, abundant in the area, frequently came up with the fishing nets and had to be thrown back into the water. ... Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology . Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6 . ^ Bonnevie, P. (1948). ... Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B . 128 (1): 27–30. doi : 10.1016/S1096-4959(00)00316-X . CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( link ) ^ a b Bowers PW, Julian CG., PW; Julian, CG (2001).
Characteristics [ edit ] Botellón usually begins around 11:00 p.m. and ends around 3:00 a.m. when many people move to a bar or club. ... There is no concrete evidence as to the relation of smoking and drinking, but one belief is because as participants reach the age to purchase alcohol they also reach the age to purchase cigarettes. ... Since botellón is usually a nighttime activity, Spain passed a law that prohibits stores to sell alcohol to the public after 10:00 p.m, hoping to persuade people to attend clubs or bars where alcohol must remain on site. [ citation needed ] However, the measure is a controversial one because people can still buy alcohol before the selling limit hour and consume it in public. ... One example of a macro-botellón was on 17 March 2006, "Half of Spain [met] on the net to organize a macro-botellón".  The macro-botellón was organized in cities around Spain, such as Madrid, Barcelona, Sevilla, Oviedo, Murcia, Vitoria, Málaga, Córdoba, Granada, and Jaén.  One of the purposes of the macro-botellón on 17 March 2006, near the Faro de Moncloa in Madrid, Spain, was to protest against the municipal restrictions on drinking alcohol in the streets. ... CS1 maint: archived copy as title ( link ) ^ "Media España se cita en la Red para celebrar un macrobotellón el 17 de marzo" . 2006-03-07. ^ http://www.20minutos.es/noticia/97295/0/macrobotellones/ciudades/espana/ | Literally translated from Spanish ^ "El Ayuntamiento "no consentirá" el macrobotellón que se prepara en Moncloa" . 2006-03-07.
The chalky grayish-white particles within the tumor mass correspond to foci of cartilage on histology; the semi-translucent membrane covering the lens in some tumors corresponds to spreading neoplastic cells.   Tumor cells form a characteristic diktyomatous pattern, with folded cords and sheets resembling a fisherman's net.  In early development of the retina, the medullary epithelial cells acquire polarity, such that a basement membrane associated with the vitreous forms the internal limiting membrane on one side, while terminal bars form the outer limiting membrane on the other side. ... Mortality may occur in patients with extraocular extension to the brain.    Lack of glial differentiation, as demonstrated by negative staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), may confer a favourable prognosis.  Epidemiology [ edit ] Mean age at diagnosis is 5 years.   While most cases occur in young children, adult cases have been reported.   Incidence is similar in male and female and among different races. ... American Journal of Ophthalmology . 130 (3): 364–366. doi : 10.1016/S0002-9394(00)00542-0 . ^ a b c d e Vajaranant, Thasarat S.; Mafee, Mahmood F.; Kapur, Rashmi; Rapoport, Mark; Edward, Deepak P. ... American Journal of Ophthalmology . 133 (6): 841–843. doi : 10.1016/S0002-9394(02)01432-0 . ^ Janss, Anna J.; Yachnis, Anthony T.; Silber, Jeffrey H.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.
Medulloepithelioma of the central nervous system is a rare, primitive neuroectodermal tumor characterized by papillary, tubular and trabecular arrangements of neoplastic neuroepithelium, mimicking the embryonic neural tube, most commonly found in the periventricular region within the cerebral hemispheres, but has also been reported in brainstem and cerebellum. It usually presents in childhood with headache, nausea, vomiting, facial nerve paresis, and/or cerebellar ataxia, and typically has a progressive course, highly malignant behavior and poor prognosis. Hearing and visual loss have also been observed.
Treatment [ edit ] Total resection of the tumour, followed by radiation therapy is the standard treatment modality.  Medulloepithelioma of the ciliary body may necessitate enucleation of the eye.   Radiation therapy alone may prolong survival.  Aggressive chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplant is used for metastatic medulloepitheliomas.  Prognosis [ edit ] Medulloepithelioma carries a dismal prognosis with a median survival of 5 months.     Epidemiology [ edit ] Medulloepithelioma most commonly affect children between 6 months and 5 years; rarely, this tumour may occur congenitally or beyond this age range.    Incidence is equal in males and females.  References [ edit ] ^ a b Definition of Medulloepithelioma Archived 2015-12-25 at the Wayback Machine , from Online Medical Dictionary.
. ^ "Deaths in the district of Inveresk and Musselburgh in the County of Edinburgh" . Statutory Deaths 689/00 0032 . ScotlandsPeople . Retrieved 11 April 2015 . External links [ edit ] Classification D ICD-O : 8011/0, 8011/3 Wikimedia Commons has media related to Epithelioma .
According to the Histiocytosis Association of America , 1 in 200,000 children in the United States are born with histiocytosis each year.  HAA also states that most of the people diagnosed with histiocytosis are children under the age of 10, although the disease can afflict adults. The disease usually occurs from birth to age 15.  Histiocytosis (and malignant histiocytosis ) are both important in veterinary as well as human pathology. ... Information concerning histiocytosis and clinicians located in European countries may be found in many languages at the web portal of Euro Histio Net (EHN). This is a project funded by the European Union, coordinated by Jean Donadieu, APHP , Paris, France. ... Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology . Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0 . ^ Goldberg, J; Nezelof, C (1986), "Lymphohistiocytosis: a multi-factorial syndrome of macrophagic activation clinico-pathological study of 38 cases", Hematol Oncol , 4 (4): 275–289, PMID 3557322 . ^ Egan, Caoimhe; Jaffe, Elaine S. (2018). ... Springer Science & Business Media. p. 383. ISBN 978-0-387-73743-0 . External links [ edit ] Classification D ICD - 10 : C96.1 , D76.0 ICD - 9-CM : 202.3 , 277.89 MeSH : D015614 SNOMED CT : 60657004 External resources MedlinePlus : 000068 eMedicine : ped/1997 v t e Histiocytosis WHO-I/ Langerhans cell histiocytosis / X-type histiocytosis Letterer–Siwe disease Hand–Schüller–Christian disease Eosinophilic granuloma Congenital self-healing reticulohistiocytosis WHO-II/ non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis / Non-X histiocytosis Juvenile xanthogranuloma Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis Erdheim-Chester disease Niemann–Pick disease Sea-blue histiocyte Benign cephalic histiocytosis Generalized eruptive histiocytoma Xanthoma disseminatum Progressive nodular histiocytosis Papular xanthoma Hereditary progressive mucinous histiocytosis Reticulohistiocytosis ( Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis , Reticulohistiocytoma ) Indeterminate cell histiocytosis WHO-III/ malignant histiocytosis Histiocytic sarcoma Langerhans cell sarcoma Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma Ungrouped Rosai–Dorfman disease
Retiform parapsoriasis Specialty Dermatology Retiform parapsoriasis is a cutaneous condition, considered to be a type of large-plaque parapsoriasis .  It is characterized by widespread, ill-defined plaques on the skin, that have a net-like or zebra-striped pattern.  Skin atrophy , a wasting away of the cutaneous tissue , usually occurs within the area of these plaques.  See also [ edit ] Parapsoriasis Poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans List of cutaneous conditions References [ edit ] ^ a b Lambert WC, Everett MA (Oct 1981). ... St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0 . External links [ edit ] Classification D ICD - 10 : L41.5 ICD - 9-CM : 696.2 v t e Papulosquamous disorders Psoriasis Pustular Generalized pustular psoriasis ( Impetigo herpetiformis ) Acropustulosis / Pustulosis palmaris et plantaris ( Pustular bacterid ) Annular pustular psoriasis Localized pustular psoriasis Other Guttate psoriasis Psoriatic arthritis Psoriatic erythroderma Drug-induced psoriasis Inverse psoriasis Napkin psoriasis Seborrheic-like psoriasis Parapsoriasis Pityriasis lichenoides ( Pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta , Pityriasis lichenoides chronica ) Lymphomatoid papulosis Small plaque parapsoriasis ( Digitate dermatosis , Xanthoerythrodermia perstans ) Large plaque parapsoriasis ( Retiform parapsoriasis ) Other pityriasis Pityriasis rosea Pityriasis rubra pilaris Pityriasis rotunda Pityriasis amiantacea Other lichenoid Lichen planus configuration Annular Linear morphology Hypertrophic Atrophic Bullous Ulcerative Actinic Pigmented site Mucosal Nails Peno-ginival Vulvovaginal overlap synromes with lichen sclerosus with lupus erythematosis other: Hepatitis-associated lichen planus Lichen planus pemphigoides Other Lichen nitidus Lichen striatus Lichen ruber moniliformis Gianotti–Crosti syndrome Erythema dyschromicum perstans Idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation Keratosis lichenoides chronica Kraurosis vulvae Lichen sclerosus Lichenoid dermatitis Lichenoid reaction of graft-versus-host disease This dermatology article is a stub .
The Lancet . 156 (4011): 89–95. doi : 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)65681-7 . ^ Weisse, Martin E (31 December 2000). ... The Lancet . 357 (9252): 299–301. doi : 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)03623-0 . PMID 11214144 . S2CID 35896288 . ^ Powell, KR (January 1979). ... The Journal of Pediatrics . 78 (6): 958–67. doi : 10.1016/S0022-3476(71)80425-0 . PMID 4252715 . ^ Morens, David M; Katz, Alan R; Melish, Marian E (31 May 2001). ... The Lancet . 357 (9273): 2059. doi : 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)05151-5 . PMID 11441870 . S2CID 35925579 .
A rare staphylococcal toxemia caused by epidermolytic toxins of Staphylococcus aureus and characterized by the appearance of widespread erythematous patches, on which large blisters develop. Upon rupture of these blisters, the skin appears reddish and scalded. The lesions typically begin in the face and rapidly expand to other parts of the body. The disease may be complicated by pneumonia and sepsis. It most commonly affects newborns and infants.
Avoiding mosquito bites, such as by using insecticide -treated mosquito bed nets , also reduces the transmission of lymphatic filariasis.   The Carter Center 's International Task Force for Disease Eradication declared lymphatic filariasis one of six potentially eradicable diseases.  According to medical experts, the worldwide effort to eliminate lymphatic filariasis is on track to potentially succeed by 2020.  For similar-looking but causally unrelated podoconiosis , international awareness of the disease will have to increase before elimination is possible. ... Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology . Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6 . ^ a b Pfarr KM, Debrah AY, Specht S, Hoerauf A (November 2009). ... Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function . McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-287506-5 . ^ a b c "Parasites - Lymphatic Filariasis" . cdc.gov . ... Wallingford: CAB International. pp. 1–848. ISBN 0-85198-689-7 . ^ Grove, David I (2014). ... Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 1–602. ISBN 978-0-19-964102-4 . ^ Burma D.P. (2010).
Lymphatic filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by microscopic, thread-like worms that only live in the human lymph system , which maintains the body's fluid balance and fights infections. It is spread from person to person by mosquitoes. Most infected people are asymptomatic and never develop clinical symptoms. A small percentage of people develop lymphedema , which may affect the legs, arms, breasts, and genitalia; bacterial infections that cause hardening and thickening of the skin, called elephantiasis; hydrocele (swelling of the scrotum) in men; and pulmonary tropical eosinophilia syndrome . Treatment may include a yearly dose of medicine, called diethylcarbamazine (DEC); while this drug does not kill all of the adult worms, it prevents infected people from giving the disease to someone else.
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a severe form of filariasis (see this term), caused by the parasitic worms Wuchereria bancrofti , Brugia malayi and Brugia timori , and the most common cause of acquired lymphedema worldwide. LF is endemic to tropical and subtropical regions. The vast majority of infected patients are asymptomatic but it can also cause a variety of clinical manifestations, including limb lymphedema, genital anomalies (hydrocele, chylocele), elephantiasis in later stages of the disease (frequently in the lower extremities), and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (nocturnal paroxysmal cough and wheezing, weight loss, low-grade fever, adenopathy, and pronounced blood eosinophilia). Renal involvement (hematuria, proteinuria, nephritic syndrome, glomerulonephritis), and mono-arthritis of the knee or ankle joint have also been reported.
In this study they reported an average age of onset of 7.9 years. Frequently the rash first appeared in the spring or summer months and involved sun-exposed skin.  The rash starts as a vesicular eruption, later becoming umbilicated, and resulted in vacciniform scarring. ... Feb, 42(2 Pt 1) (2): 208–13. doi : 10.1016/s0190-9622(00)90127-0 . PMID 10642674 . ^ James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology . Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0 . ^ Rezk SA, Zhao X, Weiss LM (September 2018).
A rare photodermatosis characterized by the development of pruritic or painful vesicles in a photodistributed pattern in response to sunlight exposure. The lesions heal with permanent varioliform scarring. Ocular involvement, deformities of ears and nose, or contractures of the fingers may occasionally be observed. Systemic signs and symptoms are absent. The condition typically occurs in childhood and regresses spontaneously in adolescence or young adulthood.
However in some cases, a pancreatic NET occurs outside of the pancreas. A NET arises from cells that produce hormones, so the tumor can also produce hormones. ... Pancreatic NETs are called either functional or nonfunctional. A functional pancreatic NET causes specific symptoms because it makes extra hormones, such as gastrin, insulin, or glucagon. ... Pancreatic NETs can be hard to diagnosis, often not identified until 5 to 10 years after they begin to grow. Most pancreatic NETs are not inherited and occur sporadically in people with no family history of NETs.
Pancreatic endocrine tumor, also known as pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET), describes a group of endocrine tumors originating in the pancreas that are usually indolent and benign, but may have the potential to be malignant. They can be functional, exhibiting a hormonal hypersecretion syndrome, but can be non-functional presenting with non-specific symptoms and include insulinoma, glucagonoma, VIPoma, somatostatinoma (SSoma), PPoma and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES, or gastrinoma) and other ectopic hormone producing tumors (such as GRFoma) (see these terms). Epidemiology Prevalence in the U.S. is estimated at 1/4,000-1/3,300 and 1/37,000 in Japan, but this is likely an underestimate due to a low detection rate. Clinical description PNETs, when functional, usually present in the 5th decade of life as various hypersecretion syndromes. These include insulinoma presenting with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia; glucagonoma with necrolytic migratory erythema, diabetes mellitus, and thomboembolisms; VIPoma with watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and or hypo/achlorhydia; SSoma with diabetes mellitus, cholelithiasis, steatorrhea and hypochlorhydria; and ZES with severe peptic ulcer disease.
The Lancet . 156 (4011): 89–95. doi : 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)65681-7 . ^ a b c d Weisse, ME (31 December 2000). ... The Lancet . 357 (9252): 299–301. doi : 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)03623-0 . PMID 11214144 . S2CID 35896288 . ^ Dukes-Filatov disease at Who Named It?
A neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is a rare type of tumor that arises from specialized body cells called neuroendocrine cells . ... Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (also called islet cell tumors) - NETs that typically arise in the pancreas, although they can occur outside the pancreas. A p heochromocytoma is another, rarer type of NET that usually develops in the adrenal gland , but can also arise in other parts of the body. ... Functional NETs produce a specific set of symptoms due to the production of excess hormones, while non-functional NETs generally do not cause specific symptoms. In many cases, a person has no symptoms until the tumor spreads to the liver and/or impairs the function of an organ or system. This can make NETs very hard to diagnose. The majority of NETs are not inherited and occur sporadically in people with no family history of NETs.
Endocrine gland neoplasm Specialty Oncology , endocrinology An endocrine gland neoplasm is a neoplasm affecting one or more glands of the endocrine system . Examples include: Adrenal tumor Pituitary adenoma The most common form is thyroid cancer .  Condition such as pancreatic cancer or ovarian cancer can be considered endocrine tumors, or classified under other systems. Pinealoma is often grouped with brain tumors because of its location. [ citation needed ] See also [ edit ] Multiple endocrine neoplasia References [ edit ] ^ "Thyroid cancer" . Archived from the original on 2007-12-20 . Retrieved 2007-12-22 . External links [ edit ] Classification D ICD - 10 : C73 - C75 D34 - D35 MeSH : D00470 v t e Overview of tumors , cancer and oncology Conditions Benign tumors Hyperplasia Cyst Pseudocyst Hamartoma Malignant progression Dysplasia Carcinoma in situ Cancer Metastasis Primary tumor Sentinel lymph node Topography Head and neck ( oral , nasopharyngeal ) Digestive system Respiratory system Bone Skin Blood Urogenital Nervous system Endocrine system Histology Carcinoma Sarcoma Blastoma Papilloma Adenoma Other Precancerous condition Paraneoplastic syndrome Staging / grading TNM Ann Arbor Prostate cancer staging Gleason grading system Dukes classification Carcinogenesis Cancer cell Carcinogen Tumor suppressor genes / oncogenes Clonally transmissible cancer Oncovirus Carcinogenic bacteria Misc. Research Index of oncology articles History Cancer pain Cancer and nausea v t e Tumours of endocrine glands Pancreas Pancreatic cancer Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor α : Glucagonoma β : Insulinoma δ : Somatostatinoma G : Gastrinoma VIPoma Pituitary Pituitary adenoma : Prolactinoma ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma GH-secreting pituitary adenoma Craniopharyngioma Pituicytoma Thyroid Thyroid cancer (malignant): epithelial-cell carcinoma Papillary Follicular / Hurthle cell Parafollicular cell Medullary Anaplastic Lymphoma Squamous-cell carcinoma Benign Thyroid adenoma Struma ovarii Adrenal tumor Cortex Adrenocortical adenoma Adrenocortical carcinoma Medulla Pheochromocytoma Neuroblastoma Paraganglioma Parathyroid Parathyroid neoplasm Adenoma Carcinoma Pineal gland Pinealoma Pinealoblastoma Pineocytoma MEN 1 2A 2B This article about a neoplasm is a stub .
They are due to elevated cytosolic calcium concentrations, classically seen with digoxin toxicity.   The overload of the sarcoplasmic reticulum may cause spontaneous Ca 2+ release after repolarization, causing the released Ca 2+ to exit the cell through the 3Na + /Ca 2+ -exchanger. This results in a net depolarizing current. The classical feature is Bidirectional ventricular tachycardia . ... Neuroscience. ^ Katzung, B: Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (10th ed.), chapter 14: "Agents Used in Cardiac Arrhythmias", The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2007, ISBN 978-0-07-145153-6 ^ Lilly, L: "Pathophysiology of Heart Disease", chapter 11: "Mechanisms of Cardiac Arrhthmias", Lippencott, Williams and Wilkens, 2007 This article about a medical condition affecting the circulatory system is a stub .
Clinical Features Lisch et al. (1992) described 5 family members and 3 unrelated patients (4 males, 4 females), aged 23 to 71 years, with bilateral or unilateral, gray, band-shaped, and feathery opacities that sometimes appeared in whorled patterns.
Clin Dermatol . 19 (1): 69–71. doi : 10.1016/S0738-081X(00)00215-7 . PMID 11369491 . ^ "Drugs that call for extra caution. ... New York: Simon Schuster. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-684-87309-1 . ^ M.d. Kamath, Bob (30 May 2007). ... Kendall Hunt Publishing. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-7872-8701-6 . ^ Ashton CH (2002).
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 254–256. ISBN 0-7817-3905-5 . ^ a b c d e f g h i Smith, Melanie N. (2006-05-10). ... Cambridge University Press . p. 77. ISBN 1-900151-51-0 . ^ Papadakis, Maxine A.; Stephen J. ... McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 60. ISBN 0-07-145892-1 . ^ a b Bosze, Peter; David M. ... Informa Health Care. p. 66. ISBN 963-00-7356-0 . ^ "Cervical Polyps" (PDF) .
H&E stain Specialty Endocrine oncology Neuroendocrine tumors ( NETs ) are neoplasms that arise from cells of the endocrine ( hormonal ) and nervous systems . ... G1 and G2 neuroendocrine neoplasms are called neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) – formerly called carcinoid tumours. ... Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. ( November 2015 ) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) NETs from a particular anatomical origin often show similar behavior as a group, such as the foregut (which conceptually includes pancreas, and even thymus, airway and lung NETs), midgut and hindgut ; individual tumors within these sites can differ from these group benchmarks: Foregut NETs are argentaffin negative. ... Bone metastasis is uncommon. Hindgut NETs are argentaffin negative and rarely secrete 5-HT, 5-HTP, or any other vasoactive peptides. ... Not all cells are immediately killed; cell death can go on for up to two years. [ citation needed ] PRRT was initially used for low grade NETs. It is also very useful in more aggressive NETs such as Grade 2 and 3 NETs   provided they demonstrate high uptake on SSTR imaging to suggest benefit.
Overview Neuroendocrine tumors are cancers that begin in specialized cells called neuroendocrine cells. Neuroendocrine cells have traits similar to those of nerve cells and hormone-producing cells. Neuroendocrine tumors are rare and can occur anywhere in the body. Most neuroendocrine tumors occur in the lungs, appendix, small intestine, rectum and pancreas. There are many types of neuroendocrine tumors. Some grow slowly and some grow very quickly. Some neuroendocrine tumors produce excess hormones (functional neuroendocrine tumors).