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A number sign (#) is used with this entry because pachyonychia congenita-4 (PC4) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the KRT6B gene (148042) on chromosome 12q13. Description Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with the main clinical features of hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful and highly debilitating plantar keratoderma, oral leukokeratosis, and a variety of epidermal cysts. Although the condition had previously been subdivided clinically into Jadassohn-Lewandowsky PC type 1 and Jackson-Lawler PC type 2, patients with PC were later found to have a mixed constellation of both types, leading to a classification of PC based on genotype (summary by Sybert, 2010; Eliason et al., 2012; McLean et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pachyonychia congenita, see 167200. Historical Classification of Pachyonychia Congenita Gorlin et al. (1976) suggested that 2 distinct syndromes are subsumed under the designation pachyonychia congenita.
Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a rare genodermatosis predominantly featuring painful palmoplantar keratoderma, thickened nails, cysts and whitish oral mucosa. Epidemiology The prevalence is not known but approximately 1000 patients have been registered to date worldwide. Clinical description PC presents clinically as a spectrum of conditions. PC onset is variable with most cases manifesting soon after birth, others becoming clinically apparent only in late childhood and rarely in adulthood. The first signs of the disease usually are thickened nails or neonatal teeth.
Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a rare inherited condition that primarily affects the nails and skin. The fingernails and toenails may be thickened and abnormally shaped . Affected people can also develop painful calluses and blisters on the soles of their feet and less frequently on the palms of their hands ( palmoplantar keratoderma ). Additional features include white patches on the tongue and inside of the mouth (leukokeratosis); bumps around the elbows, knees, and waistline (follicular hyperkeratosis); and cysts of various types including steatocystoma. Features may vary among affected people depending on their specific mutation.
For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pachyonychia congenita, see 167200. Inheritance Chong-Hai and Rajagopalan (1977) suggested autosomal recessive inheritance of pachyonychia congenita in a 4-year-old Malaysian girl with first-cousin parents, although they recognized new dominant mutation as a possibility. See also Sivasundram et al. (1985). INHERITANCE - Autosomal recessive HEAD & NECK Mouth - No oral leukoplakia SKIN, NAILS, & HAIR Skin - Horny papules (face, leg, buttocks) - No palmoplantar hyperkeratosis - No hyperhidrosis Nails - Episodic inflammatory swelling of nail bed - Recurrent shedding of nails - Hard,thickened nails (pachyonychia) - Subungual hyperkeratosis MISCELLANEOUS - See also pachyonychia congenita, type 3 (PC1, 167200 ) ▲ Close
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because pachyonychia congenita-3 (PC3) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the keratin-6a gene (KRT6A; 148041) on chromosome 12q13. Description Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with the main clinical features of hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful and highly debilitating plantar keratoderma, oral leukokeratosis, and a variety of epidermal cysts. Although the condition had previously been subdivided clinically into Jadassohn-Lewandowsky PC type 1 and Jackson-Lawler PC type 2, patients with PC were later found to have a mixed constellation of both types, leading to a classification of PC based on genotype (summary by Sybert, 2010; Eliason et al., 2012; McLean et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pachyonychia congenita, see 167200. Historical Classification of Pachyonychia Congenita Gorlin et al. (1976) suggested that 2 distinct syndromes are subsumed under the designation pachyonychia congenita.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that pachyonychia congenita-2 (PC2) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the KRT17 gene (148069) on chromosome 17q21. Description Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with the main clinical features of hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful and highly debilitating plantar keratoderma, oral leukokeratosis, and a variety of epidermal cysts. Although the condition had previously been subdivided clinically into Jadassohn-Lewandowsky PC type 1 and Jackson-Lawler PC type 2, patients with PC were later found to have a mixed constellation of both types, leading to a classification of PC based on genotype (summary by Sybert, 2010; Eliason et al., 2012; McLean et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pachyonychia congenita, see 167200. Historical Classification of Pachyonychia Congenita Gorlin et al. (1976) suggested that 2 distinct syndromes are subsumed under the designation pachyonychia congenita.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because pachyonychia congenita-1 (PC1) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the keratin-16 gene (KRT16; 148067) on chromosome 17q21. Description Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with the main clinical features of hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful and highly debilitating plantar keratoderma, oral leukokeratosis, and a variety of epidermal cysts. Although the condition had previously been subdivided clinically into Jadassohn-Lewandowsky PC type 1 and Jackson-Lawler PC type 2, patients with PC were later found to have a mixed constellation of both types, leading to a classification of PC based on genotype (summary by Sybert, 2010; Eliason et al., 2012; McLean et al., 2011). Historical Classification of Pachyonychia Congenita Gorlin et al. (1976) suggested that 2 distinct syndromes are subsumed under the designation pachyonychia congenita. PC type 1, the Jadassohn-Lewandowsky type, shows oral leukokeratosis.
In Dogger Bank itch, sensitivity is acquired after repeated handling of the sea chervils that become entangled in fishing nets. [ citation needed ] The specific toxin responsible for the rash was determined to be the sulfur -bearing salt (2-hydroxyethyl) dimethylsulfoxonium chloride.  This salt is also found in some sea sponges and has potent in vitro activity against leukemia cells.  Treatment [ edit ] A study of two cases in 2001 suggests that the rash responds to oral ciclosporin . ... The sea chervil, abundant in the area, frequently came up with the fishing nets and had to be thrown back into the water. ... Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology . Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6 . ^ Bonnevie, P. (1948). ... Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B . 128 (1): 27–30. doi : 10.1016/S1096-4959(00)00316-X . CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( link ) ^ a b Bowers PW, Julian CG., PW; Julian, CG (2001).
Current Opinion in Genetics & Development . 10 (3): 262–9. doi : 10.1016/s0959-437x(00)00084-8 . PMID 10826992 . ^ Rash BG, Grove EA (October 2007). ... Archived from the original on 2009-05-14. ^ Armand Marie Leroi , Mutants : On the Form, Varieties and Errors of the Human Body , 2003, Harper Perennial, London. ISBN 0-00-653164-4 ^ The Carter Center for Research in holoprosencephaly  and  Archived 2008-11-21 at the Wayback Machine ^ Hong M, Srivastava K, Kim S, Allen BL, Leahy DJ, Hu P, Roessler E, Krauss RS, Muenke M (2017) BOC is a modifier gene in holoprosencephaly. ... Human Genetics . 125 (1): 95–103. doi : 10.1007/s00439-008-0599-0 . PMC 2692056 . PMID 19057928 . ^ Tekendo-Ngongang C, Muenke M, Kruszka P (1993).
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because it represents a contiguous gene deletion syndrome. A form of holoprosencephaly (HPE10) has been mapped within the deleted region of chromosome 1q41-q42. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100). See also congenital diaphragmatic hernia (DIH; 142340), which has been associated with deletion of chromosome 1q41-q42. See also Skraban-Deardorff syndrome (SKDEAS; 617616), caused by mutation in the WDR26 gene (617424) on chromosome 1q42, which shows overlapping features with chromosome 1q41-q42 deletion syndrome.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that holoprosencephaly-4 (HPE4) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the TGIF gene (602630) on chromosome 18p11. For phenotypic information and a general discussion of genetic heterogeneity in holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100). Cytogenetics Johnson and Bachman (1976) described a normal female who appeared to have a nonreciprocal translocation from the short arm of one chromosome 18 to the long arm of a chromosome 12. She gave birth to a cebocephalic child whose karyotype included an 18p- chromosome. The association of loss of 18p with holoprosencephaly was suggested by the patient reported by Munke et al. (1988); cytogenetic and molecular studies indicated a Y/18 translocation with loss of 18p and distal Yq material in a holoprosencephalic fetus.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because holoprosencephaly-11 (HPE11) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the CDON gene (608707) on chromosome 11q24. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100). Clinical Features Bae et al. (2011) reported 4 unrelated patients with HPE11. One patient had agenesis of the corpus callosum, hypotelorism, growth hormone deficiency, global developmental delay, and thick eyebrows with synophrys. Another had agenesis of the corpus callosum, alobar HPE, hypotelorism, cleft lip/palate, and absent columella; absent pituitary and polysplenia were noted in this patient at autopsy.
For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100). Clinical Features Levin and Surana (1991) described holoprosencephaly in association with an interstitial deletion of chromosome 14q11.1-q13. Parental karyotypes were normal. The white female, born to nonconsanguineous young parents after an uncomplicated pregnancy, showed hypotelorism, lack of nasal bridge, flattened nasal tip with no visible septum, wide midline cleft of lip and hard palate, and ptosis of the left upper eyelid. Axial CT scan of the head was interpreted as showing semilobar holoprosencephaly. The infant died at 8 days of age. Kamnasaran et al. (2005) reported 6 patients with HPE and interstitial deletions on proximal chromosome 14q: 1 had alobar HPE and 5 had lobar HPE.
For phenotypic information and a general discussion of genetic heterogeneity in holoprosencephaly (HPE), see HPE1 (236100). Clinical Features Lehman et al. (2001) described a female infant who survived for 5.5 hours after delivery at 33 weeks' gestation. Autopsy showed a lobar variant of holoprosencephaly. Cytogenetics By cytogenetic analysis in an infant with a lobar variant of holoprosencephaly, Lehman et al. (2001) identified a 2q37.1-q37.3 deletion. This case represented the fourth reported case of HPE associated with partial monosomy 2q37 and the first with an apparently isolated 2q37 deletion. Lehman et al. (2001) suggested that the deleted segment may contain yet another locus, here designated HPE6, which, when disrupted, can lead to brain malformations within the HPE spectrum.
Nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly is an abnormality of brain development that also affects the head and face. Normally, the brain divides into two halves (hemispheres ) during early development. Holoprosencephaly occurs when the brain fails to divide properly into the right and left hemispheres. This condition is called nonsyndromic to distinguish it from other types of holoprosencephaly caused by genetic syndromes, chromosome abnormalities, or substances that cause birth defects (teratogens). The severity of nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly varies widely among affected individuals, even within the same family.
Holoprosencephaly is an abnormality of brain development in which the brain doesn't properly divide into the right and left hemispheres. The condition can also affect development of the head and face. There are 4 types of holoprosencephaly, distinguished by severity. From most to least severe, the 4 types are alobar, semi-lobar, lobar, and middle interhemispheric variant (MIHV). In general, the severity of any facial defects corresponds to the severity of the brain defect. The most severely affected people have one central eye (cyclopia) and a tubular nasal structure (proboscis) located above the eye.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that holoprosencephaly-3 (HPE3) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the SHH gene (600725), which encodes the human Sonic hedgehog homolog, on chromosome 7q36. For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100). Clinical Features Berry et al. (1984) and Johnson (1989) provided information on a family (family 2 in Johnson, 1989) in which holoprosencephaly occurred in 2 sibs and their first cousin, who were offspring of parents with a single central maxillary incisor. Johnson (1989) reported a second patient (family 1) with full-blown holoprosencephaly whose mother and sister had only a single central maxillary incisor. Johnson (1989) suggested that holoprosencephaly is a developmental field defect of which the mild forms can be single median incisor, hypotelorism, bifid uvula, or pituitary deficiency.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that holoprosencephaly-7 (HPE7) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the PTCH1 gene (601309) on chromosome 9q22. For phenotypic information and a general discussion of genetic heterogeneity in holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100). Description Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most commonly occurring congenital structural forebrain anomaly in humans. HPE is associated with mental retardation and craniofacial malformations. Considerable heterogeneity in the genetic causes of HPE has been demonstrated (Ming et al., 2002).
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) and SMMCI syndrome are caused by heterozygous mutation in the Sonic hedgehog gene (SHH; 600725) on chromosome 7q36. Clinical Features Rappaport et al. (1976, 1977) reported 7 unrelated patients with single (unpaired) deciduous and permanent maxillary central incisors and short stature. Five of them had isolated growth hormone deficiency. The other 2 had normal growth hormone responses but were short of stature. No similar or possibly related abnormalities were present in the 7 families. Rappaport et al. (1976) used the term monosuperoincisivodontic dwarfism to describe the association of short stature and solitary incisor.
Description Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common structural malformation of the human forebrain and occurs after failed or abbreviated midline cleavage of the developing brain during the third and fourth weeks of gestation. HPE occurs in up to 1 in 250 gestations, but only 1 in 8,000 live births (Lacbawan et al., 2009). Classically, 3 degrees of severity defined by the extent of brain malformation have been described. In the most severe form, 'alobar HPE,' there is a single ventricle and no interhemispheric fissure. The olfactory bulbs and tracts and the corpus callosum are typically absent.
A rare complex brain malformation characterized by incomplete cleavage of the prosencephalon, and affecting both the forebrain and face and resulting in neurological manifestations and facial anomalies of variable severity. Epidemiology Prevalence is estimated to be 1/10,000 live and still births and 1/250 conceptuses, with worldwide distribution. Clinical description Three classical forms of holoprosencephaly (HPE) of increasing severity are described based on the degree of anatomical separation: lobar, semi-lobar and alobar HPE. Milder subtypes include midline interhemispheric variant and septopreoptic HPE. There is, however, a continuous spectrum of abnormal separation of the hemispheres that extends from aprosencephaly/atelencephaly, the most severe end of the spectrum, to microform HPE, a less severe midline defect without the typical HPE brain characteristics.
Baller–Gerold syndrome Other names Craniosynostosis-radial aplasia syndrome, Craniosynostosis with radial defects The inheritance pattern of Baller-Gerold Syndrome Baller–Gerold syndrome ( BGS ) is a rare genetic syndrome that involves premature fusion of the skull bones and malformations of facial, forearm and hand bones.  The symptoms of Baller–Gerold syndrome overlap with features of a few other genetics disorders: Rothmund–Thomson syndrome and RAPADILINO syndrome .  The prevalence of BGS is unknown, as there have only been a few reported cases, but it is estimated to be less than 1 in a million.  The name of the syndrome comes from the researchers Baller and Gerold who discovered the first three cases.  Contents 1 Signs and symptoms 2 Genetics 3 Diagnosis 4 Treatment 5 References 6 External links Signs and symptoms [ edit ] The Coronal suture The most common and defining features of BGS are craniosynostosis and radial ray deficiency.  The observations of these features allow for a diagnosis of BGS to be made, as these symptoms characterize the syndrome.  Craniosynostosis involves the pre-mature fusion of bones in the skull.  The coronal craniosynostosis that is commonly seen in patients with BGS results in the fusion of the skull along the coronal suture .  Because of the changes in how the bones of the skull are connected together, people with BGS will have an abnormally shaped head, known as brachycephaly .  Features commonly seen in those with coronal craniosynostosis are bulging eyes, shallow eye pockets, and a prominent forehead.  Radial ray deficiency is another clinical characteristic of those with BGS, and results in the under-development ( hypoplasia ) or the absence ( aplasia ) of the bones in the arms and the hands. These bones include the radius, the carpal bones associated with the radius and the thumb.   Oligodactyly can also result from radial ray deficiency, meaning that someone with BGS may have fewer than five fingers.  Radial ray deficiency that is associated with syndromes (such as BGS) occurs bi-laterally, affecting both arms.  Some of the other clinical characteristics sometimes associated with this disorder are growth retardation and poikiloderma .  Although the presentation of BGS may differ between individuals, these characteristics are often observed. ... In order for someone to have BGS, they need to have two mutant copies of the gene. ... You can help by adding to it . ( July 2017 ) Treatment [ edit ] While there is no cure for BGS, symptoms can be treated as they arise. ... Retrieved 2015-11-09 . ^ a b c "OMIM Entry - # 218600 - BALLER-GEROLD SYNDROME; BGS" . www.omim.org . Retrieved 2015-11-09 . ^ Mundlos, Stefan; Horn, Denise (2014-01-01).
Summary Clinical characteristics. Baller-Gerold syndrome (BGS) can be suspected at birth in an infant with craniosynostosis and upper limb abnormality. ... Diagnosis/testing. The diagnosis of BGS is established in a proband with typical clinical findings and/or the identification of biallelic pathogenic variants in RECQL4 by molecular genetic testing. ... Clinical Characteristics Clinical Description Since the original description of Baller-Gerold syndrome (BGS) by Baller  and Gerold , fewer than 40 individuals with BGS have been reported [Mégarbané et al 2000, Van Maldergem et al 2006, Debeljak et al 2009, Siitonen et al 2009, Piard et al 2015, Kaneko et al 2017]. BGS can be suspected at birth in an infant with craniosynostosis and upper limb abnormality. ... Differential Diagnosis The major differential diagnosis for Baller-Gerold syndrome (BGS) comprises the allelic disorders Rothmund-Thomson syndrome and RAPADILINO syndrome (OMIM 266280).
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that Baller-Gerold syndrome (BGS) is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the RECQL4 gene (603780) on chromosome 8p24. ... The finding of premature centromere separation pointed to Roberts syndrome rather than BGS as indicated by Huson et al. (1990). ... The patient of Gripp et al. (1999) illustrated the practical significance of the distinction. BGS has been thought to be an autosomal recessive disorder; the Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder. ... Molecular Genetics Van Maldergem et al. (2006) pointed out the clinical overlap between the BGS and Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS; 268400) and RAPADILINO syndrome (266280). Because patients with RAPADILINO syndrome and a subset of patients with RTS have mutations in the RECQL4 gene (603780), they reassessed 2 previously reported BGS families and found causal mutations in RECQL4 in both.
Baller-Gerold syndrome is characterized by the association of coronal craniosynostosis with radial ray anomalies (oligodactyly, aplasia or hypoplasia of the thumb, aplasia or hypoplasia of the radius). Epidemiology Around 30 cases have been reported but the prevalence of the syndrome is unknown. Clinical description Craniosynostosis and radial ray anomalies present at birth and are associated with facial dysmorphism (brachycephaly, ocular exophthalmia, frontal bossing, nasal hypoplasia, small mouth, ogival palate). An inconstant poikiloderma can appear during the first months of life. Delayed growth is nearly always present, usually around -4SD. Patellar aplasia or hypoplasia can be observed during childhood.
Baller-Gerold syndrome (BGS) is a rare condition primarily affecting the way the bones of the skull and limbs grow. ... In addition, they may have a characteristic skin condition that includes patches of discoloration and skin breakdown ( poikiloderma ). People with BGS may have growth delay and be at increased risk for certain types of cancer. Intelligence is usually normal. Most cases of BGS are caused by alterations in the RECQL4 gene.
Baller-Gerold syndrome is a rare condition characterized by the premature fusion of certain skull bones (craniosynostosis) and abnormalities of bones in the arms and hands. People with Baller-Gerold syndrome have prematurely fused skull bones, most often along the coronal suture, the growth line that goes over the head from ear to ear. Other sutures of the skull may be fused as well. These changes result in an abnormally shaped head, a prominent forehead , and bulging eyes with shallow eye sockets (ocular proptosis ). Other distinctive facial features can include widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism ), a small mouth , and a saddle-shaped or underdeveloped nose. Bone abnormalities in the hands include missing fingers (oligodactyly ) and malformed or absent thumbs .
The chalky grayish-white particles within the tumor mass correspond to foci of cartilage on histology; the semi-translucent membrane covering the lens in some tumors corresponds to spreading neoplastic cells.   Tumor cells form a characteristic diktyomatous pattern, with folded cords and sheets resembling a fisherman's net.  In early development of the retina, the medullary epithelial cells acquire polarity, such that a basement membrane associated with the vitreous forms the internal limiting membrane on one side, while terminal bars form the outer limiting membrane on the other side. ... American Journal of Ophthalmology . 130 (3): 364–366. doi : 10.1016/S0002-9394(00)00542-0 . ^ a b c d e Vajaranant, Thasarat S.; Mafee, Mahmood F.; Kapur, Rashmi; Rapoport, Mark; Edward, Deepak P. ... American Journal of Ophthalmology . 133 (6): 841–843. doi : 10.1016/S0002-9394(02)01432-0 . ^ Janss, Anna J.; Yachnis, Anthony T.; Silber, Jeffrey H.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.
Medulloepithelioma of the central nervous system is a rare, primitive neuroectodermal tumor characterized by papillary, tubular and trabecular arrangements of neoplastic neuroepithelium, mimicking the embryonic neural tube, most commonly found in the periventricular region within the cerebral hemispheres, but has also been reported in brainstem and cerebellum. It usually presents in childhood with headache, nausea, vomiting, facial nerve paresis, and/or cerebellar ataxia, and typically has a progressive course, highly malignant behavior and poor prognosis. Hearing and visual loss have also been observed.
Medulloepithelioma Histopathology of medulloepithelioma showing characteristic neural tube like strands. Specialty Neurosurgery , oncology Medulloepithelioma is a rare, primitive, fast-growing brain tumour thought to stem from cells of the embryonic medullary cavity .  Tumours originating in the ciliary body of the eye are referred to as embryonal medulloepitheliomas,  or diktyomas .  A highly malignant undifferentiated primitive neuroepithelial tumour of children, medulloepithelioma may contain bone , cartilage , skeletal muscle , and tends to metastasize extracranially.  Contents 1 Signs and symptoms 2 Diagnosis 2.1 Classification 3 Treatment 4 Prognosis 5 Epidemiology 6 References 7 External links Signs and symptoms [ edit ] Medulloepithelioma have been reported to occur in the cerebral hemispheres , brainstem , cerebellum , and peripheral sites .     Due to rapid growth of the tumour, patients typically present with increased intracranial pressure , seizures , and focal neurologic signs .  Diagnosis [ edit ] Neuronal differentiation, ranging from neuroblasts to ganglion cells, is seen in some medulloepitheliomas. Imaging studies such as Computerized Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can aid diagnosis . Medulloepithelioma appears isodense or hypodense with variable heterogeneity and calcification on non-contrast CT scan, and enhances with contrast.  This radiographical finding is consistent with a primitive neuroectodermal tumour, especially in children.  Blood studies and imaging studies of the abdomen may be used to detect metastases.  Needle aspiration biopsy can be used to aid diagnosis.  Definitive diagnosis requires histopathological examination of surgically excised tumour tissues. Histologically, medulloepithelioma resemble a primitive neural tube and with neuronal, glial and mesenchymal elements.   Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes may also be observed.  Immunohistochemically , neural tube-like structures are vimentin positive in the majority of medulloepitheliomas.  Poorly differentiated medulloepitheliomas are vimentin negative.
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 254–256. ISBN 0-7817-3905-5 . ^ a b c d e f g h i Smith, Melanie N. (2006-05-10). ... Cambridge University Press . p. 77. ISBN 1-900151-51-0 . ^ Papadakis, Maxine A.; Stephen J. ... McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 60. ISBN 0-07-145892-1 . ^ a b Bosze, Peter; David M. ... Informa Health Care. p. 66. ISBN 963-00-7356-0 . ^ "Cervical Polyps" (PDF) .
Affluenza: How to Be Successful and Stay Sane . Vermilion . ISBN 978-0-09-190011-3 . ^ James, Oliver (2008). The Selfish Capitalist . Vermilion . ISBN 978-0-09-192381-5 . ^ James, Oliver (2007). ... London: Vermilion. p. 344 . ISBN 978-0-09-190010-6 . 1. The mean prevalence of emotional distress for the six English-speaking nations combined was 21.6%. ... (Archive is the same work, but on a different website) Further reading [ edit ] The Circle of Simplicity , Cecile Andrews, ISBN 0-06-092872-7 The Golden Ghetto: The Psychology of Affluence , Jessie H. O'Neill, ISBN 978-0-9678554-0-0 Voluntary Simplicity , Duane Elgin, ISBN 0-688-12119-5 Voluntary Simplicity , Daniel Doherty & Amitai Etzioni, ISBN 0-7425-2066-8 How Much Is Too Much?
. ^ "Deaths in the district of Inveresk and Musselburgh in the County of Edinburgh" . Statutory Deaths 689/00 0032 . ScotlandsPeople . Retrieved 11 April 2015 . External links [ edit ] Classification D ICD-O : 8011/0, 8011/3 Wikimedia Commons has media related to Epithelioma .
A rare photodermatosis characterized by the development of pruritic or painful vesicles in a photodistributed pattern in response to sunlight exposure. The lesions heal with permanent varioliform scarring. Ocular involvement, deformities of ears and nose, or contractures of the fingers may occasionally be observed. Systemic signs and symptoms are absent. The condition typically occurs in childhood and regresses spontaneously in adolescence or young adulthood.
Clin Dermatol . 19 (1): 69–71. doi : 10.1016/S0738-081X(00)00215-7 . PMID 11369491 . ^ "Drugs that call for extra caution. ... New York: Simon Schuster. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-684-87309-1 . ^ M.d. Kamath, Bob (30 May 2007). ... Kendall Hunt Publishing. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-7872-8701-6 . ^ Ashton CH (2002).
Retiform parapsoriasis Specialty Dermatology Retiform parapsoriasis is a cutaneous condition, considered to be a type of large-plaque parapsoriasis .  It is characterized by widespread, ill-defined plaques on the skin, that have a net-like or zebra-striped pattern.  Skin atrophy , a wasting away of the cutaneous tissue , usually occurs within the area of these plaques.  See also [ edit ] Parapsoriasis Poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans List of cutaneous conditions References [ edit ] ^ a b Lambert WC, Everett MA (Oct 1981). ... St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0 . External links [ edit ] Classification D ICD - 10 : L41.5 ICD - 9-CM : 696.2 v t e Papulosquamous disorders Psoriasis Pustular Generalized pustular psoriasis ( Impetigo herpetiformis ) Acropustulosis / Pustulosis palmaris et plantaris ( Pustular bacterid ) Annular pustular psoriasis Localized pustular psoriasis Other Guttate psoriasis Psoriatic arthritis Psoriatic erythroderma Drug-induced psoriasis Inverse psoriasis Napkin psoriasis Seborrheic-like psoriasis Parapsoriasis Pityriasis lichenoides ( Pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta , Pityriasis lichenoides chronica ) Lymphomatoid papulosis Small plaque parapsoriasis ( Digitate dermatosis , Xanthoerythrodermia perstans ) Large plaque parapsoriasis ( Retiform parapsoriasis ) Other pityriasis Pityriasis rosea Pityriasis rubra pilaris Pityriasis rotunda Pityriasis amiantacea Other lichenoid Lichen planus configuration Annular Linear morphology Hypertrophic Atrophic Bullous Ulcerative Actinic Pigmented site Mucosal Nails Peno-ginival Vulvovaginal overlap synromes with lichen sclerosus with lupus erythematosis other: Hepatitis-associated lichen planus Lichen planus pemphigoides Other Lichen nitidus Lichen striatus Lichen ruber moniliformis Gianotti–Crosti syndrome Erythema dyschromicum perstans Idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation Keratosis lichenoides chronica Kraurosis vulvae Lichen sclerosus Lichenoid dermatitis Lichenoid reaction of graft-versus-host disease This dermatology article is a stub .
The disease has also been reported affecting the commercial salmon fisheries of the United States, Australia, New Zealand, France, Spain, Ireland and Chile.  It was first diagnosed in the summer of 1984/1985 in populations of Atlantic salmon off the east coast of Tasmania and was found to be caused by N. perurans n.sp.  Contents 1 Clinical signs and diagnosis 2 Treatment and control 3 Notes 4 References Clinical signs and diagnosis [ edit ] Symptoms typically begin to appear two months after the fish are transferred from freshwater hatcheries to open net sea cages.  Symptoms include mucus build-up on the gills of infected fish and hyper-plastic lesions, causing white spots and eventual deterioration of the gill tissue. ... searchQuery=amoebic+gill+disease&moduleId=2708303&moduleFilter=&categoryFilter=&startAt=0 [ permanent dead link ] ^ "Neoparamoeba perurans n. sp., an agent of amoebic gill disease of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)". ... searchQuery=amoebic+gill+disease&moduleId=2708303&moduleFilter=&categoryFilter=&startAt=0 [ permanent dead link ] ^ https://www.int-res.com/articles/dao/25/d025p023.pdf ^ http://eafp.org/display/Search?searchQuery=amoebic+gill+disease&moduleId=2708303&moduleFilter=&categoryFilter=&startAt=0 [ permanent dead link ] References [ edit ] Amoebic Gill Disease Wikivet .
Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 1150. ISBN 0-7817-2655-7 . Retrieved 2008-06-16 . ^ a b c d e f Scalea TM (2005). ... Boca Raton: CRC. pp. 26–32. ISBN 978-0-8493-8138-6 . Retrieved 2008-07-06 . ^ a b Porth, Carol (2007). ... Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 838. ISBN 978-0-7817-7087-3 . Retrieved 2008-07-03 . ^ Pitkänen A, McIntosh TK (2006). ... Neurotrauma: New Insights Into Pathology and Treatment . Elsevier. pp. 13–19. ISBN 978-0-444-53017-2 . Retrieved 2008-06-10 . ^ a b Granacher RP (2007). ... Neuroscience . 101 (2): 289–95. doi : 10.1016/S0306-4522(00)00380-8 . PMID 11074152 . S2CID 20457228 . ^ Sauaia A, Moore FA, Moore EE, et al.
Characteristics [ edit ] Botellón usually begins around 11:00 p.m. and ends around 3:00 a.m. when many people move to a bar or club. ... Since botellón is usually a nighttime activity, Spain passed a law that prohibits stores to sell alcohol to the public after 10:00 p.m, hoping to persuade people to attend clubs or bars where alcohol must remain on site. [ citation needed ] However, the measure is a controversial one because people can still buy alcohol before the selling limit hour and consume it in public. ... One example of a macro-botellón was on 17 March 2006, "Half of Spain [met] on the net to organize a macro-botellón".  The macro-botellón was organized in cities around Spain, such as Madrid, Barcelona, Sevilla, Oviedo, Murcia, Vitoria, Málaga, Córdoba, Granada, and Jaén.  One of the purposes of the macro-botellón on 17 March 2006, near the Faro de Moncloa in Madrid, Spain, was to protest against the municipal restrictions on drinking alcohol in the streets. ... CS1 maint: archived copy as title ( link ) ^ "Media España se cita en la Red para celebrar un macrobotellón el 17 de marzo" . 2006-03-07. ^ http://www.20minutos.es/noticia/97295/0/macrobotellones/ciudades/espana/ | Literally translated from Spanish ^ "El Ayuntamiento "no consentirá" el macrobotellón que se prepara en Moncloa" . 2006-03-07.
With giant hemangiomas in small children, thrombocytopenia and red cell changes compatible with trauma ('microangiopathic hemolytic anemia') have been observed. The mechanism of the hematologic changes is obscure. No evidence of a simple genetic basis has been discovered. Propp and Scharfman (1966) reported a male infant with thrombocytopenia associated with a large hemangioma of the right arm and axilla. The patient had low platelet counts with a markedly diminished platelet survival time and an absence of platelet agglutinin or complement-fixing antibody. Radiochromate-tagged platelet studies suggested sequestration in the hemangioma, liver, and spleen.
Hemangioma thrombocytopenia syndrome is characterized by profound thrombocytopenia in association with two rare vascular tumors: kaposiform hemangioendotheliomas and tufted angiomas . The profound thrombocytopenia can cause life threatening bleeding and progress to a disseminated coagulopathy in patients with these tumors. The condition typically occurs in early infancy or childhood, although prenatal cases (diagnosed with the aid of ultrasonography), newborn presentations, and rare adult cases have been reported.
Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS), also known as hemangioma-thrombocytopenia syndrome, is a rare disorder characterized by profound thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and subsequent consumptive coagulopathy in association with vascular tumors, particularly kaposiform hemangioendothelioma or tufted angioma.
Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology (10th ed.). Saunders. p. 550. ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6 . ^ Freedberg; et al. (2003). Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 513. ISBN 978-0-07-138076-8 . ^ Bentires-Alj M, Kontaridis MI, Neel BG (March 2006).
Gripp et al. (2007) reported 13 unrelated patients ages 0 to 8 years with a clinical diagnosis of Costello syndrome (218040), Costello-like syndrome, or thought to have either CFC syndrome or Costello syndrome who were negative for mutations in the HRAS gene.
Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is a disorder that affects many parts of the body, particularly the heart, face, skin, and hair. People with this condition also have developmental delay and intellectual disability, usually ranging from moderate to severe. The signs and symptoms of CFC syndrome overlap significantly with those of two other conditions, Costello syndrome and Noonan syndrome . These syndromes belong to a group of related conditions called the RASopathies , which are distinguished by their genetic causes and specific pattern of features. It can sometimes be hard to tell these conditions apart in infancy. CFC syndrome is usually caused by a mutation in the BRAF gene, but can also be due to a mutation in the MAP2K1 , MAP2K2 or KRAS g ene.
Summary Clinical characteristics. Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is characterized by cardiac abnormalities (pulmonic stenosis and other valve dysplasias, septal defects, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, rhythm disturbances), distinctive craniofacial appearance, and cutaneous abnormalities (including xerosis, hyperkeratosis, ichthyosis, keratosis pilaris, ulerythema ophryogenes, eczema, pigmented moles, hemangiomas, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis). The hair is typically sparse, curly, fine or thick, woolly or brittle; eyelashes and eyebrows may be absent or sparse. Nails may be dystrophic or fast growing. Some form of neurologic and/or cognitive delay (ranging from mild to severe) is seen in all affected individuals. Neoplasia, mostly acute lymphoblastic leukemia, has been reported in some individuals. Diagnosis/testing. Diagnosis is based on clinical findings and molecular genetic testing.
Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome is a disorder that affects many parts of the body, particularly the heart (cardio-), facial features (facio-), and the skin and hair (cutaneous). People with this condition also have delayed development and intellectual disability, usually ranging from moderate to severe. Heart defects occur in most people with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome. The heart problems most commonly associated with this condition include malformations of one of the heart valves that impairs blood flow from the heart to the lungs (pulmonic stenosis), a hole between the two upper chambers of the heart (atrial septal defect ), and a form of heart disease that enlarges and weakens the heart muscle (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy). Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome is also characterized by distinctive facial features.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome-3 (CFC3) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the MAP2K1 gene (176872) on chromosome 15q22. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, see CFC1 (115150). Description Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC) is a complex developmental disorder involving characteristic craniofacial features, cardiac anomalies, hair and skin abnormalities, postnatal growth deficiency, hypotonia, and developmental delay. Distinctive features of CFC3 include macrostomia and horizontal shape of palpebral fissures (Schulz et al., 2008). Clinical Features Rodriguez-Viciana et al. (2006) reported 2 patients with CFC3.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because this form of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC2) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the KRAS gene (190070) on chromosome 12p12.1. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, see CFC1 (115150). Description Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, heart defects, and mental retardation (summary by Niihori et al., 2006). In a phenotypic comparison of BRAF (164757)-positive and KRAS-positive individuals with CFC, Niihori et al. (2006) observed that patients with KRAS mutations did not have the skin abnormalities, such as ichthyosis, hyperkeratosis, and hemangioma, that were present in patients with BRAF mutation. Clinical Features Wieczorek et al. (1997) described a female patient (patient 2) with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome-4 (CFC4) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the MAPK2K2 gene (601263) on chromosome 19p13. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, see CFC1 (115150). Description Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder in which individuals have characteristic craniofacial features, cardiac defects, ectodermal anomalies, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and neurocognitive delay (summary by Rauen et al., 2010). Clinical Features Rodriguez-Viciana et al. (2006) identified 1 patient with CFC4 among 23 CFC patients. The child had characteristic craniofacial features, ectodermal abnormalities, aortic valve defect and nonprogressive ventricular septal hypertrophy, short stature with growth hormone deficiency, scoliosis and pectus deformity, ocular abnormalities (nystagmus, strabismus, myopia, bilateral cataracts and optic nerve hypoplasia), cerebellar hypoplasia, prominence of the lateral ventricles, thinning of the corpus callosum, and moderate developmental delay.
A rare, multiple congenital anomalies syndrome characterized by craniofacial dysmorphology, congenital heart disease, dermatological abnormalities (most commonly hyperkeratotic skin and sparse, curly hair), neurological manifestations (hypotonia, seizures), failure to thrive and intellectual disability. Epidemiology Around 300 cases have been published in the literature to date. Prevalence has been estimated at 1/810,000 people in Japan. However prevalence is believed to be higher. Clinical description Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome displays wide phenotypic variability. Polyhydramnios is often reported. Neonates present at birth with relative macrocephaly, short webbed neck and distinctive dysmorphic craniofacial features (i.e. coarse facial appearance, large forehead, low-set ears, ptosis, downslanting of eyes, epicanthal folds, short nose with depressed nasal bridge, prominent philtrum, high arched palate, thick lower lip).
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