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A number sign (#) is used with this entry because pachyonychia congenita-4 (PC4) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the KRT6B gene (148042) on chromosome 12q13. Description Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with the main clinical features of hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful and highly debilitating plantar keratoderma, oral leukokeratosis, and a variety of epidermal cysts. Although the condition had previously been subdivided clinically into Jadassohn-Lewandowsky PC type 1 and Jackson-Lawler PC type 2, patients with PC were later found to have a mixed constellation of both types, leading to a classification of PC based on genotype (summary by Sybert, 2010; Eliason et al., 2012; McLean et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pachyonychia congenita, see 167200. Historical Classification of Pachyonychia Congenita Gorlin et al. (1976) suggested that 2 distinct syndromes are subsumed under the designation pachyonychia congenita.
Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a rare inherited condition that primarily affects the nails and skin. The fingernails and toenails may be thickened and abnormally shaped . Affected people can also develop painful calluses and blisters on the soles of their feet and less frequently on the palms of their hands ( palmoplantar keratoderma ). Additional features include white patches on the tongue and inside of the mouth (leukokeratosis); bumps around the elbows, knees, and waistline (follicular hyperkeratosis); and cysts of various types including steatocystoma. Features may vary among affected people depending on their specific mutation.
For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pachyonychia congenita, see 167200. Inheritance Chong-Hai and Rajagopalan (1977) suggested autosomal recessive inheritance of pachyonychia congenita in a 4-year-old Malaysian girl with first-cousin parents, although they recognized new dominant mutation as a possibility. See also Sivasundram et al. (1985). INHERITANCE - Autosomal recessive HEAD & NECK Mouth - No oral leukoplakia SKIN, NAILS, & HAIR Skin - Horny papules (face, leg, buttocks) - No palmoplantar hyperkeratosis - No hyperhidrosis Nails - Episodic inflammatory swelling of nail bed - Recurrent shedding of nails - Hard,thickened nails (pachyonychia) - Subungual hyperkeratosis MISCELLANEOUS - See also pachyonychia congenita, type 3 (PC1, 167200 ) ▲ Close
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because pachyonychia congenita-3 (PC3) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the keratin-6a gene (KRT6A; 148041) on chromosome 12q13. Description Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with the main clinical features of hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful and highly debilitating plantar keratoderma, oral leukokeratosis, and a variety of epidermal cysts. Although the condition had previously been subdivided clinically into Jadassohn-Lewandowsky PC type 1 and Jackson-Lawler PC type 2, patients with PC were later found to have a mixed constellation of both types, leading to a classification of PC based on genotype (summary by Sybert, 2010; Eliason et al., 2012; McLean et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pachyonychia congenita, see 167200. Historical Classification of Pachyonychia Congenita Gorlin et al. (1976) suggested that 2 distinct syndromes are subsumed under the designation pachyonychia congenita.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that pachyonychia congenita-2 (PC2) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the KRT17 gene (148069) on chromosome 17q21. Description Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with the main clinical features of hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful and highly debilitating plantar keratoderma, oral leukokeratosis, and a variety of epidermal cysts. Although the condition had previously been subdivided clinically into Jadassohn-Lewandowsky PC type 1 and Jackson-Lawler PC type 2, patients with PC were later found to have a mixed constellation of both types, leading to a classification of PC based on genotype (summary by Sybert, 2010; Eliason et al., 2012; McLean et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pachyonychia congenita, see 167200. Historical Classification of Pachyonychia Congenita Gorlin et al. (1976) suggested that 2 distinct syndromes are subsumed under the designation pachyonychia congenita.
Connors et al. (2001) described a young girl with clinical features of pachyonychia congenita type 1 in whom the typical skin and nail changes were not noted until the age of 6 years. Direct sequencing of the KRT16 gene revealed a novel lys354 to asn mutation (K354N; 148067.0008) in the central 2B domain of the KRT16 polypeptide.
Characteristics [ edit ] Botellón usually begins around 11:00 p.m. and ends around 3:00 a.m. when many people move to a bar or club. ... There is no concrete evidence as to the relation of smoking and drinking, but one belief is because as participants reach the age to purchase alcohol they also reach the age to purchase cigarettes. ... Since botellón is usually a nighttime activity, Spain passed a law that prohibits stores to sell alcohol to the public after 10:00 p.m, hoping to persuade people to attend clubs or bars where alcohol must remain on site. [ citation needed ] However, the measure is a controversial one because people can still buy alcohol before the selling limit hour and consume it in public. ... One example of a macro-botellón was on 17 March 2006, "Half of Spain [met] on the net to organize a macro-botellón".  The macro-botellón was organized in cities around Spain, such as Madrid, Barcelona, Sevilla, Oviedo, Murcia, Vitoria, Málaga, Córdoba, Granada, and Jaén.  One of the purposes of the macro-botellón on 17 March 2006, near the Faro de Moncloa in Madrid, Spain, was to protest against the municipal restrictions on drinking alcohol in the streets. ... CS1 maint: archived copy as title ( link ) ^ "Media España se cita en la Red para celebrar un macrobotellón el 17 de marzo" . 2006-03-07. ^ http://www.20minutos.es/noticia/97295/0/macrobotellones/ciudades/espana/ | Literally translated from Spanish ^ "El Ayuntamiento "no consentirá" el macrobotellón que se prepara en Moncloa" . 2006-03-07.
Waterhouse et al.  recommend: Time zones Local time to avoid light at destination Local time to seek light at destination East 6h 03:00–09:00 11:00–17:00 East 7h 04:00–10:00 12:00–18:00 East 8h 05:00–11:00 13:00–19:00 East 9h 06:00–12:00 14:00–20:00 Travelling east by 10 hours or more is usually best managed by assuming it is a 14-hour westward transition and delaying the body clock.  A customised jet lag program can be obtained from an online jet lag calculator.
The Lancet . 156 (4011): 89–95. doi : 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)65681-7 . ^ a b c d Weisse, ME (31 December 2000). ... The Lancet . 357 (9252): 299–301. doi : 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)03623-0 . PMID 11214144 . S2CID 35896288 . ^ Dukes-Filatov disease at Who Named It?
. ^ "Deaths in the district of Inveresk and Musselburgh in the County of Edinburgh" . Statutory Deaths 689/00 0032 . ScotlandsPeople . Retrieved 11 April 2015 . External links [ edit ] Classification D ICD-O : 8011/0, 8011/3 Wikimedia Commons has media related to Epithelioma .
In Dogger Bank itch, sensitivity is acquired after repeated handling of the sea chervils that become entangled in fishing nets. [ citation needed ] The specific toxin responsible for the rash was determined to be the sulfur -bearing salt (2-hydroxyethyl) dimethylsulfoxonium chloride.  This salt is also found in some sea sponges and has potent in vitro activity against leukemia cells.  Treatment [ edit ] A study of two cases in 2001 suggests that the rash responds to oral ciclosporin . ... The sea chervil, abundant in the area, frequently came up with the fishing nets and had to be thrown back into the water. ... Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology . Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6 . ^ Bonnevie, P. (1948). ... Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B . 128 (1): 27–30. doi : 10.1016/S1096-4959(00)00316-X . CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( link ) ^ a b Bowers PW, Julian CG., PW; Julian, CG (2001).
The Lancet . 156 (4011): 89–95. doi : 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)65681-7 . ^ Weisse, Martin E (31 December 2000). ... The Lancet . 357 (9252): 299–301. doi : 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)03623-0 . PMID 11214144 . S2CID 35896288 . ^ Powell, KR (January 1979). ... The Journal of Pediatrics . 78 (6): 958–67. doi : 10.1016/S0022-3476(71)80425-0 . PMID 4252715 . ^ Morens, David M; Katz, Alan R; Melish, Marian E (31 May 2001). ... The Lancet . 357 (9273): 2059. doi : 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)05151-5 . PMID 11441870 . S2CID 35925579 .
A rare staphylococcal toxemia caused by epidermolytic toxins of Staphylococcus aureus and characterized by the appearance of widespread erythematous patches, on which large blisters develop. Upon rupture of these blisters, the skin appears reddish and scalded. The lesions typically begin in the face and rapidly expand to other parts of the body. The disease may be complicated by pneumonia and sepsis. It most commonly affects newborns and infants.
Clinical Features Lisch et al. (1992) described 5 family members and 3 unrelated patients (4 males, 4 females), aged 23 to 71 years, with bilateral or unilateral, gray, band-shaped, and feathery opacities that sometimes appeared in whorled patterns.
It is common among baseball pitchers as they age, and it can also occur with quarterbacks in football and handball players also as they age. ... Arthroscopy . 16 (1): 27–34. doi : 10.1016/S0749-8063(00)90124-5 . PMID 10627342 . Bach HG, Goldberg BA (May 2006).
The chalky grayish-white particles within the tumor mass correspond to foci of cartilage on histology; the semi-translucent membrane covering the lens in some tumors corresponds to spreading neoplastic cells.   Tumor cells form a characteristic diktyomatous pattern, with folded cords and sheets resembling a fisherman's net.  In early development of the retina, the medullary epithelial cells acquire polarity, such that a basement membrane associated with the vitreous forms the internal limiting membrane on one side, while terminal bars form the outer limiting membrane on the other side. ... Mortality may occur in patients with extraocular extension to the brain.    Lack of glial differentiation, as demonstrated by negative staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), may confer a favourable prognosis.  Epidemiology [ edit ] Mean age at diagnosis is 5 years.   While most cases occur in young children, adult cases have been reported.   Incidence is similar in male and female and among different races. ... American Journal of Ophthalmology . 130 (3): 364–366. doi : 10.1016/S0002-9394(00)00542-0 . ^ a b c d e Vajaranant, Thasarat S.; Mafee, Mahmood F.; Kapur, Rashmi; Rapoport, Mark; Edward, Deepak P. ... American Journal of Ophthalmology . 133 (6): 841–843. doi : 10.1016/S0002-9394(02)01432-0 . ^ Janss, Anna J.; Yachnis, Anthony T.; Silber, Jeffrey H.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.
Medulloepithelioma of the central nervous system is a rare, primitive neuroectodermal tumor characterized by papillary, tubular and trabecular arrangements of neoplastic neuroepithelium, mimicking the embryonic neural tube, most commonly found in the periventricular region within the cerebral hemispheres, but has also been reported in brainstem and cerebellum. It usually presents in childhood with headache, nausea, vomiting, facial nerve paresis, and/or cerebellar ataxia, and typically has a progressive course, highly malignant behavior and poor prognosis. Hearing and visual loss have also been observed.
Treatment [ edit ] Total resection of the tumour, followed by radiation therapy is the standard treatment modality.  Medulloepithelioma of the ciliary body may necessitate enucleation of the eye.   Radiation therapy alone may prolong survival.  Aggressive chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplant is used for metastatic medulloepitheliomas.  Prognosis [ edit ] Medulloepithelioma carries a dismal prognosis with a median survival of 5 months.     Epidemiology [ edit ] Medulloepithelioma most commonly affect children between 6 months and 5 years; rarely, this tumour may occur congenitally or beyond this age range.    Incidence is equal in males and females.  References [ edit ] ^ a b Definition of Medulloepithelioma Archived 2015-12-25 at the Wayback Machine , from Online Medical Dictionary.
Clin Dermatol . 19 (1): 69–71. doi : 10.1016/S0738-081X(00)00215-7 . PMID 11369491 . ^ "Drugs that call for extra caution. ... New York: Simon Schuster. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-684-87309-1 . ^ M.d. Kamath, Bob (30 May 2007). ... Kendall Hunt Publishing. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-7872-8701-6 . ^ Ashton CH (2002).
In this study they reported an average age of onset of 7.9 years. Frequently the rash first appeared in the spring or summer months and involved sun-exposed skin.  The rash starts as a vesicular eruption, later becoming umbilicated, and resulted in vacciniform scarring. ... Feb, 42(2 Pt 1) (2): 208–13. doi : 10.1016/s0190-9622(00)90127-0 . PMID 10642674 . ^ James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology . Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0 . ^ Rezk SA, Zhao X, Weiss LM (September 2018).
A rare photodermatosis characterized by the development of pruritic or painful vesicles in a photodistributed pattern in response to sunlight exposure. The lesions heal with permanent varioliform scarring. Ocular involvement, deformities of ears and nose, or contractures of the fingers may occasionally be observed. Systemic signs and symptoms are absent. The condition typically occurs in childhood and regresses spontaneously in adolescence or young adulthood.
., a single central maxillary incisor ) should be carefully assessed in parents and family members.  Non-genetic factors [ edit ] Numerous possible risk factors have been identified, including gestational diabetes , transplacental infections (the " TORCH complex "), first trimester bleeding , and a history of miscarriage .   As well, the disorder is found twice as often in female babies.  However, there appears to be no correlation between HPE and maternal age .  There is evidence of a correlation between HPE and the use of various drugs classified as being potentially unsafe for pregnant and lactating mothers. ... Seizures may develop over time with the highest risk before 2 years of age and the onset of puberty . Most are managed with one medication or a combination of medications. ... Current Opinion in Genetics & Development . 10 (3): 262–9. doi : 10.1016/s0959-437x(00)00084-8 . PMID 10826992 . ^ Rash BG, Grove EA (October 2007). ... Archived from the original on 2009-05-14. ^ Armand Marie Leroi , Mutants : On the Form, Varieties and Errors of the Human Body , 2003, Harper Perennial, London. ISBN 0-00-653164-4 ^ The Carter Center for Research in holoprosencephaly  and  Archived 2008-11-21 at the Wayback Machine ^ Hong M, Srivastava K, Kim S, Allen BL, Leahy DJ, Hu P, Roessler E, Krauss RS, Muenke M (2017) BOC is a modifier gene in holoprosencephaly. ... Human Genetics . 125 (1): 95–103. doi : 10.1007/s00439-008-0599-0 . PMC 2692056 . PMID 19057928 . ^ Tekendo-Ngongang C, Muenke M, Kruszka P (1993).
Kantarci et al. (2010) reported a patient with multiple congenital anomalies, including pulmonary hypoplasia, talipes equinovarus, undescended testes, and dysmorphic facial features, who had a deletion at chromosome 1q41-q41.13 extending from the BPNT1 gene (604053) to the PSEN2 gene (600759). He died at age 1 month. Wat et al. (2011) reported a Caucasian boy with a de novo 2.2-Mb interstitial deletion of 1q41-q42.12.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that holoprosencephaly-4 (HPE4) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the TGIF gene (602630) on chromosome 18p11. For phenotypic information and a general discussion of genetic heterogeneity in holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100). Cytogenetics Johnson and Bachman (1976) described a normal female who appeared to have a nonreciprocal translocation from the short arm of one chromosome 18 to the long arm of a chromosome 12. She gave birth to a cebocephalic child whose karyotype included an 18p- chromosome. The association of loss of 18p with holoprosencephaly was suggested by the patient reported by Munke et al. (1988); cytogenetic and molecular studies indicated a Y/18 translocation with loss of 18p and distal Yq material in a holoprosencephalic fetus.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because holoprosencephaly-11 (HPE11) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the CDON gene (608707) on chromosome 11q24. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100). Clinical Features Bae et al. (2011) reported 4 unrelated patients with HPE11. One patient had agenesis of the corpus callosum, hypotelorism, growth hormone deficiency, global developmental delay, and thick eyebrows with synophrys. Another had agenesis of the corpus callosum, alobar HPE, hypotelorism, cleft lip/palate, and absent columella; absent pituitary and polysplenia were noted in this patient at autopsy.
Axial CT scan of the head was interpreted as showing semilobar holoprosencephaly. The infant died at 8 days of age. Kamnasaran et al. (2005) reported 6 patients with HPE and interstitial deletions on proximal chromosome 14q: 1 had alobar HPE and 5 had lobar HPE.
For phenotypic information and a general discussion of genetic heterogeneity in holoprosencephaly (HPE), see HPE1 (236100). Clinical Features Lehman et al. (2001) described a female infant who survived for 5.5 hours after delivery at 33 weeks' gestation. Autopsy showed a lobar variant of holoprosencephaly. Cytogenetics By cytogenetic analysis in an infant with a lobar variant of holoprosencephaly, Lehman et al. (2001) identified a 2q37.1-q37.3 deletion. This case represented the fourth reported case of HPE associated with partial monosomy 2q37 and the first with an apparently isolated 2q37 deletion. Lehman et al. (2001) suggested that the deleted segment may contain yet another locus, here designated HPE6, which, when disrupted, can lead to brain malformations within the HPE spectrum.
Nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly is an abnormality of brain development that also affects the head and face. Normally, the brain divides into two halves (hemispheres ) during early development. Holoprosencephaly occurs when the brain fails to divide properly into the right and left hemispheres. This condition is called nonsyndromic to distinguish it from other types of holoprosencephaly caused by genetic syndromes, chromosome abnormalities, or substances that cause birth defects (teratogens). The severity of nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly varies widely among affected individuals, even within the same family.
Holoprosencephaly is an abnormality of brain development in which the brain doesn't properly divide into the right and left hemispheres. The condition can also affect development of the head and face. There are 4 types of holoprosencephaly, distinguished by severity. From most to least severe, the 4 types are alobar, semi-lobar, lobar, and middle interhemispheric variant (MIHV). In general, the severity of any facial defects corresponds to the severity of the brain defect. The most severely affected people have one central eye (cyclopia) and a tubular nasal structure (proboscis) located above the eye.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that holoprosencephaly-3 (HPE3) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the SHH gene (600725), which encodes the human Sonic hedgehog homolog, on chromosome 7q36. For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100). Clinical Features Berry et al. (1984) and Johnson (1989) provided information on a family (family 2 in Johnson, 1989) in which holoprosencephaly occurred in 2 sibs and their first cousin, who were offspring of parents with a single central maxillary incisor. Johnson (1989) reported a second patient (family 1) with full-blown holoprosencephaly whose mother and sister had only a single central maxillary incisor. Johnson (1989) suggested that holoprosencephaly is a developmental field defect of which the mild forms can be single median incisor, hypotelorism, bifid uvula, or pituitary deficiency.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that holoprosencephaly-7 (HPE7) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the PTCH1 gene (601309) on chromosome 9q22. For phenotypic information and a general discussion of genetic heterogeneity in holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100). Description Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most commonly occurring congenital structural forebrain anomaly in humans. HPE is associated with mental retardation and craniofacial malformations. Considerable heterogeneity in the genetic causes of HPE has been demonstrated (Ming et al., 2002).
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) and SMMCI syndrome are caused by heterozygous mutation in the Sonic hedgehog gene (SHH; 600725) on chromosome 7q36. Clinical Features Rappaport et al. (1976, 1977) reported 7 unrelated patients with single (unpaired) deciduous and permanent maxillary central incisors and short stature. Five of them had isolated growth hormone deficiency. The other 2 had normal growth hormone responses but were short of stature. No similar or possibly related abnormalities were present in the 7 families. Rappaport et al. (1976) used the term monosuperoincisivodontic dwarfism to describe the association of short stature and solitary incisor.
The heterogeneous etiology with a high prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities, and female predominance in HPE, were confirmed, but no effect of increased maternal age or association with twinning was observed.
A rare complex brain malformation characterized by incomplete cleavage of the prosencephalon, and affecting both the forebrain and face and resulting in neurological manifestations and facial anomalies of variable severity. Epidemiology Prevalence is estimated to be 1/10,000 live and still births and 1/250 conceptuses, with worldwide distribution. Clinical description Three classical forms of holoprosencephaly (HPE) of increasing severity are described based on the degree of anatomical separation: lobar, semi-lobar and alobar HPE. Milder subtypes include midline interhemispheric variant and septopreoptic HPE. There is, however, a continuous spectrum of abnormal separation of the hemispheres that extends from aprosencephaly/atelencephaly, the most severe end of the spectrum, to microform HPE, a less severe midline defect without the typical HPE brain characteristics.
Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology . 44 (4): 381–6. doi : 10.1016/S0021-5155(00)00179-9 . PMID 10974294 . v t e Symptoms and signs relating to the eye Adnexa lacrimal : Schirmer's test eyelid : Abadie's sign of exophthalmic goiter Boston's sign Dalrymple's sign Stellwag's sign Globe pupil : Argyll Robertson pupils Adie pupil Marcus Gunn pupil cornea : Fleischer ring Kayser–Fleischer ring Hudson–Stahli line iris : Brushfield spots Lisch nodule conjunctiva : Bitot's spots Arlt's line retina : Hollenhorst plaque Roth's spot Fuchs spot others: Alexander's law Hirschberg test Siegrist streaks This medical sign article is a stub .
External links [ edit ] Enterotoxemia at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) http://www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,1607,7-153-10370_12150_12220-26508--,00.html https://web.archive.org/web/20111113020906/http://www.radil.missouri.edu/info/dora/RABBPAGE/GI.html#IV .
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 254–256. ISBN 0-7817-3905-5 . ^ a b c d e f g h i Smith, Melanie N. (2006-05-10). ... Cambridge University Press . p. 77. ISBN 1-900151-51-0 . ^ Papadakis, Maxine A.; Stephen J. ... McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 60. ISBN 0-07-145892-1 . ^ a b Bosze, Peter; David M. ... Informa Health Care. p. 66. ISBN 963-00-7356-0 . ^ "Cervical Polyps" (PDF) .
DOCK8 immunodeficiency syndrome is a disorder of the immune system. The condition is characterized by recurrent infections that are severe and can be life-threatening. The infections can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. Skin infections cause rashes, blisters, accumulations of pus (abscesses), open sores, and scaling. People with DOCK8 immunodeficiency syndrome also tend to have frequent bouts of pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. Other immune system-related problems in people with DOCK8 immunodeficiency syndrome include an inflammatory skin disorder called eczema , food or environmental allergies, and asthma. DOCK8 immunodeficiency syndrome is characterized by abnormally high levels of an immune system protein called immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the blood; the levels can be more than 10 times higher than normal for no known reason.
Autosomal recessive hyper IgE syndrome (AR-HIES) is a very rare primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by highly elevated blood levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) , recurrent staphylococcal skin abscesses , and recurrent pneumonia . The same features are also seen in the more frequent autosomal dominant HIES syndrome . AR-HIES accounts for only a small minority of HIES cases, with about 130 affected families reported so far. In contrast to AD-HIES, the AR variant is further characterized by extreme hypereosinophilia (increase in the eosinophil count in the bloodstream); susceptibility to viral infections such as Herpes simplex and Molluscum contagiosum ; involvement of the central nervous system; T-cell defects; and a high death rate. The dental, skeletal, connective tissue, and facial features present in AD-HIES are absent in AR-HIES.
Combined immunodeficiency due to dedicator of cytokinesis 8 protein (DOCK8) deficiency is a form of T and B cell immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent cutaneous viral infections, susceptibility to cancer and elevated serum levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE). Epidemiology Prevalence is unknown. To date, 11 patients in eight families have been reported. Clinical description Patients present in childhood with symptoms including atopic dermatitis, severe food and environmental allergies, asthma, recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections including otitis media, recurrent sinusitis, bronchitis and pneumonia, and extensive cutaneous viral and bacterial infections including superficial, often ulcerating herpes simplex virus infections, flat and verrucous warts, molluscom contagiosum infections, S. aureus skin infections or abscesses, mucosal or nail candidiasis and otitis externa. Patients with long-term herpes simplex virus infections, human papillomavirus infections or molluscom contagiosum have developed vulvar, facial and anal squamous cell dysplasia and carcinoma. The neurologic, vasculitic and autoimmune symptoms associated with autosomal dominant hyper IgE syndrome due to mutations in STAT3 (see this term), are not observed.
Though early research on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was equivocal, later research has shown it to improve immune function.  Two patients have been cured by bone marrow transplantation.  Cyclosporine A is a current topic of research; preliminary results have shown it to be effective.  Prognosis [ edit ] Children with DOCK8 deficiency do not tend to live long; sepsis is a common cause of death at a young age. CNS and vascular complications are other common causes of death.  Epidemiology [ edit ] DOCK8 deficiency is very rare,  estimated to be found in less than one person per million;  there have been 32 patients diagnosed as of 2012.  History [ edit ] DOCK8 deficiency was first described in 2004.  The mutation was discovered in 2009.  References [ edit ] ^ a b c d e "OMIM Entry - # 243700 - HYPER-IgE RECURRENT INFECTION SYNDROME, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE" . www.omim.org .