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Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology . Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6 . ^ Prat C, Lemaire O, Bret J, Zabraniecki L, Fournié B (May 2008). ... Archives de Médecine des Infants . Paris. 32 : 129–135. ISSN 0365-4311 . ^ synd/2108 at Who Named It?
Mucopolysaccharidosis type IV (MPS IV), also known as Morquio syndrome, is a progressive condition that mainly affects the skeleton. The rate at which symptoms worsen varies among affected individuals. The first signs and symptoms of MPS IV usually become apparent during early childhood. Affected individuals develop various skeletal abnormalities, including short stature, knock knees , and abnormalities of the ribs, chest, spine, hips, and wrists. People with MPS IV often have joints that are loose and very flexible (hypermobile), but they may also have restricted movement in certain joints. A characteristic feature of this condition is underdevelopment (hypoplasia) of a peg-like bone in the neck called the odontoid process.
Summary Clinical characteristics. The phenotypic spectrum of mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) is a continuum that ranges from a severe and rapidly progressive early-onset form to a slowly progressive later-onset form. Children with MPS IVA have no distinctive clinical findings at birth. The severe form is usually apparent between ages one and three years, often first manifesting as kyphoscoliosis, knock-knee (genu valgum), and pectus carinatum; the slowly progressive form may not become evident until late childhood or adolescence often first manifesting as hip problems (pain, stiffness, and Legg Perthes disease). Progressive bone and joint involvement leads to short stature, and eventually to disabling pain and arthritis. Involvement of other organ systems can lead to significant morbidity, including respiratory compromise, obstructive sleep apnea, valvular heart disease, hearing impairment, visual impairment from corneal clouding, dental abnormalities, and hepatomegaly.
Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA, also called Morquio syndrome, type A) is a metabolic condition that primarily affects the skeleton. The severity, age of onset, and associated symptoms vary significantly from person to person and range from a severe and rapidly progressive, early-onset form to a slowly progressive, later-onset form. The severe form is usually diagnosed between ages 1 and 3, while the milder form may not become evident until late childhood or adolescence. Signs and symptoms include various skeletal abnormalities such as short stature, knock knees, pectus carinatum , and malformations of the spine, hips and wrists. Affected people may also experience involvement of other organ systems such as respiratory problems, valvular heart disease , hearing impairment, corneal clouding , dental abnormalities, hepatomegaly , and spinal cord compression.
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 1152. ISBN 0-7817-7513-2 . ^ Pryse-Phillips, William (2003). ... Oxford University Press US. p. 587. ISBN 0-19-515938-1 . ^ Bradley, Walter George (2004). ... Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 2695. ISBN 0-7817-5777-0 . ^ Miller, Neil R.; Frank Burton Walsh; Valérie Biousse; William Fletcher Hoyt (2005). ... Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 1289. ISBN 0-7817-4811-9 . ^ a b Loder, Elizabeth; Dawn A. ... McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 127. ISBN 0-07-105467-7 . ^ G. D. Schott (2007).
Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology . (10th ed.). Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0 . ^ Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). ... Cutaneous Lymphomas . Informa Health Care. pp. 365–. ISBN 978-0-8247-2997-4 . Retrieved 30 May 2010 .
Eosinophilic pustular folliculitis (EPF) affects the skin causing itchy, red or skin-colored bumps and pustules (bumps containing pus). The papules mostly appear on the face, scalp, neck and trunk and may last for weeks or months. EPF affects males more than females. There are several forms of EPF. Classic eosinophilic pustular folliculitis mainly occurs in Japan. Immunosuppression-associated EPF is mainly associated with HIV infection, but has also been associated with certain cancers and medications. The infantile form of EPF is seen in infants from birth or within the first year of life. The underlying cause of EFP is unknown. All of these forms have similar skin findings.
.; et al. (2006), Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology , Saunders Elsevier, ISBN 0-7216-2921-0 ^ Marques, Silvio Alencar (October 2013). ... Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia . 88 (5): 700–711. doi : 10.1590/abd1806-4841.20132463 . ISSN 0365-0596 . PMC 3798345 . PMID 24173174 . ^ Queiroz-Telles, Flavio; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Falci, Diego R; Caceres, Diego H; Chiller, Tom; Pasqualotto, Alessandro C (November 2017). ... PMID 19879504 . ^ RESTREPO, ANGELA; TOBÓN, ANGELA MARÍA (2010), "Paracoccidioides brasiliensis", Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases , Elsevier, pp. 3357–3363, doi : 10.1016/b978-0-443-06839-3.00268-x , ISBN 9780443068393 ^ Felipe, Maria S.
A rare mycosis characterized by an acute form mostly occurring in children and young adults presenting with fever, weight loss, lymph node enlargement, hepatosplenomegaly, and bone marrow dysfunction, versus a chronic form which usually involves the lungs and mucosae of the upper respiratory tract, skin, lymph nodes, and adrenal glands, but may affect any part of the body. The most common sequelae are chronic respiratory insufficiency and Addison's disease. The infectious agent, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis , is a fungus limited to Latin America.
Garrod's pads (also known as violinist's pads  ) are a cutaneous condition characterized by calluses on the dorsal aspect of the interphalangeal joints ,  i.e. the back side of the finger joints. They are often seen in violin , viola , and cello players, along with fiddler's neck and other dermatologic conditions peculiar to string musicians.  Although Garrod's pads are conventionally described as appearing on the proximal interphalangeal joint, distal interphalangeal joint involvement has also been described.  Garrod's pads are named after Archibald Garrod who first documented them in 1904 in association with Dupuytren's contracture .  H.A. Bird described them as an incidental finding in a professional violinist and proposed that they arise in such cases due to repeated extreme tension of the extensor tendons over the interphalangeal joints.  Bird noted that violin players use the left hand for a markedly different task than the right hand, with the extensor tendons in the left hand subjected to considerable tension, and that Garrod's pads only arise on the left hand in such cases. This unilateral finding differentiates the occupational hazard of Garrod's pads from more significant disorders. Among violinists and violists, Garrod's pads apparently arise as a protective mechanism for the skin and subcutaneous tissues above the tendons; Bird notes that they do not protect against external trauma unlike most calluses.  Patients with Dupuytren's contracture are four times more likely to have coexisting Garrod's pads.   See also [ edit ] Knuckle pads Harpist's finger Fiddler's neck Cellist's chest Cello scrotum Paget-Schroetter syndrome List of cutaneous conditions List of eponymously named medical signs References [ edit ] ^ Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007).
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because knuckle pads are associated with certain genetic disorders such as epidermolytis palmoplantar keratoderma (144200) or Dupuytren contractures (126900), both of which are autosomal dominant. Knuckle pads are sometimes associated with Dupuytren contractures and it is not completely certain that a different gene is involved. Camptodactyly (114200) also has an uncertain relationship. Skoog (1948) defined knuckle pads as 'subcutaneous nodules on the dorsal aspect of the proximal interphalangeal joints.' Lu et al. (2003) reported association of knuckle pads with epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma in a Chinese family and identified a novel leu160-to-phe mutation in the keratin-9 gene (L160F; 607606.0012) as the presumed cause. They presented evidence that both the hyperkeratosis and the knuckle pads were friction-related.
Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología . 77 (11): 597–604. ISSN 0365-6691 . PMID 12410405 . Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. ^ Bennett QM (June 2008). ... Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1-305-53720-0 . ^ Gregory, Richard Langton (1977). ... Philadelphia: Mosby / Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-323-03599-6 . OCLC 853286620 . ^ Polat U., Schor C., Tong J., Zomet A., Lev M., Yehezkel O., Sterkin A., Levi D.M. (2012).
Overview Presbyopia is the gradual loss of your eyes' ability to focus on nearby objects. It's a natural, often annoying part of aging. Presbyopia usually becomes noticeable in your early to mid-40s and continues to worsen until around age 65. You may become aware of presbyopia when you start holding books and newspapers at arm's length to be able to read them. A basic eye exam can confirm presbyopia. You can correct the condition with eyeglasses or contact lenses. You might also consider surgery. Symptoms Presbyopia develops gradually.
Mark; Tiwari, Hemant K. (2013), "Multifactorial Inheritance and Complex Diseases", Emery and Rimoin's Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics , Elsevier, pp. 1–15, doi : 10.1016/b978-0-12-383834-6.00014-8 , ISBN 978-0-12-383834-6 ^ Plomin, Robert; Haworth, Claire M. ... Retrieved 2020-04-01 . ^ Korf, Bruce R.; Sathienkijkanchai, Achara (2009), "Introduction to Human Genetics", Clinical and Translational Science , Elsevier, pp. 265–287, doi : 10.1016/b978-0-12-373639-0.00019-4 , ISBN 978-0-12-373639-0 ^ Sayed-Tabatabaei, F.A.; Oostra, B.A.; Isaacs, A.; van Duijn, C.M.; Witteman, J.C.M. (2006-05-12). ... "Fast-food habits, weight gain, and insulin resistance (the CARDIA study): 15-year prospective analysis". The Lancet . 365 (9453): 36–42. doi : 10.1016/s0140-6736(04)17663-0 .
Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-31520-6 , p. 402. ^ Miller, Laura. (2006). ... University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24509-9 ^ Latteier 1998 ^ Buss, David (2019). ... El Rio, TX: Hauck Pub Co. ISBN 978-0-9621797-2-3 . ^ McDonough, Jimmy (2005). ... University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-24509-9 ^ Latteier 1998 Further reading [ edit ] Block, Susan (2004). ... The Breast Fetish (pg. 29). Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-22129-0 . Glazier, Stephen D. ; Flowerday, Charles (2003).
Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), also called sleeping sickness, is a vector-borne parasitic disease caused by a protozoa of the Trypanosoma genus transmitted by the bite of a tsetse fly (genus Glossina ), that is found under its chronic form (average duration of 3 years) in western and central Africa (in case of the T. brucei gambiense sub-species), and under its acute form (lasting from few weeks to 6 months) in eastern and southern Africa (in case of the T. brucei rhodesiense sub-species). HAT comprises an initial hemo-lymphatic stage characterized by fever, weakness, musculoskeletal pain, anemia, and lymphadenopathy, along with dermatologic, cardiac and endocrine complications or hepatosplenomegaly, followed by a meningo-encephalitic stage characterized by neurologic involvement (sleep disturbances, psychiatric disorders, seizures) that progresses, in the absence of treatment, towards a fatal meningoencephalitis.
Random House, Inc. 2001. p. 1101. ISBN 0-375-72026-X . ^ a b Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease Elsevier. 2005. p. 1232. ISBN 0-8089-2302-1 . ^ William D. James; Timothy G. ... Saunders Elsevier. pp. 686–87. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0 . ^ a b "Lentigo simplex | DermNet New Zealand" . www.dermnetnz.org . ... "An open-label study of the efficacy and tolerability of microencapsulated hydroquinone 4% and retinol 0.15% with antioxidants for the treatment of hyperpigmentation". Cutis . 81 (4): 365–71. ISSN 0011-4162 . PMID 18491487 . ^ Mansouri, P.; Farshi, S.; Hashemi, Z.; Kasraee, B. (2015-07-01).
Lentiginosis Specialty Dermatology Lentiginosis refers to the presence of lentigines in large numbers or in a distinctive configuration.  These are spotted areas created by accumulation on the skin due to sun exposure. Due to a high irregularity any distinction from randomness defines lentiginosis. Although lentigines are benign, they be the signal of an underlying problem such as progressive cardiomyopathic lentiginosis which can cause retardation in children.  See also [ edit ] Lentigines Skin cancer List of cutaneous conditions References [ edit ] ^ http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/cgi-bin/omd?lentiginosis ^ "Lentigines - American Osteopathic College of Dermatology (AOCD)" . www.aocd.org . External links [ edit ] Classification D ICD - 10 : L81.4 ( ILDS L81.402, L81.404, L81.406) MeSH : D007911 DiseasesDB : 34325 SNOMED CT : 402624000 v t e Skin cancer of nevi and melanomas Melanoma Mucosal melanoma Superficial spreading melanoma Nodular melanoma lentigo Lentigo maligna / Lentigo maligna melanoma Acral lentiginous melanoma Amelanotic melanoma Desmoplastic melanoma Melanoma with features of a Spitz nevus Melanoma with small nevus-like cells Polypoid melanoma Nevoid melanoma Melanocytic tumors of uncertain malignant potential Nevus / melanocytic nevus Nevus of Ito / Nevus of Ota Spitz nevus Pigmented spindle cell nevus Halo nevus Pseudomelanoma Blue nevus of Jadassohn–Tièche Cellular Epithelioid Deep penetrating Amelanotic Malignant Congenital melanocytic nevus ( Giant Medium-sized Small-sized ) Balloon cell nevus Dysplastic nevus / Dysplastic nevus syndrome Acral nevus Becker's nevus Benign melanocytic nevus Nevus spilus v t e Pigmentation disorders / Dyschromia Hypo- / leucism Loss of melanocytes Vitiligo Quadrichrome vitiligo Vitiligo ponctué Syndromic Alezzandrini syndrome Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada syndrome Melanocyte development Piebaldism Waardenburg syndrome Tietz syndrome Loss of melanin / amelanism Albinism Oculocutaneous albinism Ocular albinism Melanosome transfer Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome Chédiak–Higashi syndrome Griscelli syndrome Elejalde syndrome Griscelli syndrome type 2 Griscelli syndrome type 3 Other Cross syndrome ABCD syndrome Albinism–deafness syndrome Idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis Phylloid hypomelanosis Progressive macular hypomelanosis Leukoderma w/o hypomelanosis Vasospastic macule Woronoff's ring Nevus anemicus Ungrouped Nevus depigmentosus Postinflammatory hypopigmentation Pityriasis alba Vagabond's leukomelanoderma Yemenite deaf-blind hypopigmentation syndrome Wende–Bauckus syndrome Hyper- Melanin / Melanosis / Melanism Reticulated Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis Pigmentatio reticularis faciei et colli Reticulate acropigmentation of Kitamura Reticular pigmented anomaly of the flexures Naegeli–Franceschetti–Jadassohn syndrome Dyskeratosis congenita X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder Galli–Galli disease Revesz syndrome Diffuse/ circumscribed Lentigo / Lentiginosis : Lentigo simplex Liver spot Centrofacial lentiginosis Generalized lentiginosis Inherited patterned lentiginosis in black persons Ink spot lentigo Lentigo maligna Mucosal lentigines Partial unilateral lentiginosis PUVA lentigines Melasma Erythema dyschromicum perstans Lichen planus pigmentosus Café au lait spot Poikiloderma ( Poikiloderma of Civatte Poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans ) Riehl melanosis Linear Incontinentia pigmenti Scratch dermatitis Shiitake mushroom dermatitis Other/ ungrouped Acanthosis nigricans Freckle Familial progressive hyperpigmentation Pallister–Killian syndrome Periorbital hyperpigmentation Photoleukomelanodermatitis of Kobori Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation Transient neonatal pustular melanosis Other pigments Iron Hemochromatosis Iron metallic discoloration Pigmented purpuric dermatosis Schamberg disease Majocchi's disease Gougerot–Blum syndrome Doucas and Kapetanakis pigmented purpura / Eczematid-like purpura of Doucas and Kapetanakis Lichen aureus Angioma serpiginosum Hemosiderin hyperpigmentation Other metals Argyria Chrysiasis Arsenic poisoning Lead poisoning Titanium metallic discoloration Other Carotenosis Tar melanosis Dyschromia Dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria Dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria See also Skin color Skin whitening Tanning Sunless Tattoo removal Depigmentation This Genodermatoses article is a stub .
DD = developmental delay; ID = intellectual disability; OT = occupational therapy; PT = physical therapy Developmental Disability / Intellectual Disability Management Issues The following information represents typical management recommendations for individuals with developmental delay / intellectual disability in the United States; standard recommendations may vary from country to country. Ages 0-3 years. Referral to an early intervention program is recommended for access to occupational, physical, speech, and feeding therapy as well as infant mental health services, special educators, and sensory impairment specialists.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type III, also known as autosomal recessive optic atrophy-3 or optic atrophy plus syndrome, is caused by mutation in the OPA3 gene (606580). See also autosomal dominant optic atrophy-3 (165300), an allelic disorder with a less severe phenotype. For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, see MGCA type I (250950). Description Type III 3-methylglutaconic aciduria is a neuroophthalmologic syndrome consisting of early-onset bilateral optic atrophy and later-onset spasticity, extrapyramidal dysfunction, and cognitive deficit. Urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid and of 3-methylglutaric acid is increased (Anikster et al., 2001).
Costeff syndrome is an inherited condition characterized by vision loss, delayed development, and movement problems. Vision loss is primarily caused by degeneration (atrophy) of the optic nerves , which carry information from the eyes to the brain. This optic nerve atrophy often begins in infancy or early childhood and results in vision impairment that worsens over time. Some affected individuals have rapid and involuntary eye movements (nystagmus) or eyes that do not look in the same direction (strabismus). Development of motor skills, such as walking, is often delayed in people with Costeff syndrome.
3-methylglutaconic aciduria type III (MGA III) is an organic aciduria characterised by the association of optic atrophy and choreoathetosis with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. Epidemiology The vast majority of reported cases involved the Iraqi-Jewish population, in which the prevalence of the disorder has been estimated at around 1 in 10 000. Clinical description Onset of the optic atrophy occurs during infancy with a progressive decrease in visual acuity. The choreoathetoid movement disorder manifests later, usually within the first ten years of life. Other clinical features may include spastic paraparesis, mild ataxia and cognitive deficit, dysarthria, and nystagmus.
In earlier tests on tissue and cell samples obtained from patients, ARQ 092 reduced phosphorylation of AKT and downstream targets of AKT in as little as two hours.  The Phase 0 trial opened in November 2015 and recruited patients in a study titled "Dose Finding Trial of ARQ 092 in Children and Adults With Proteus Syndrome"  This trial is based on in vitro data showing inhibition of AKT1 in cell lines from patients with Proteus syndrome.  Notable cases [ edit ] In a 1986 article in the British Medical Journal , Michael Cohen and J.A.R. ... Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology (10th ed.). Saunders. p. 554. ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6 . ^ Freedberg, et al. (2003). Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine . (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-138076-0 . ^ a b c d El-Sobky, Tamer Ahmed; Elsayed, Solaf M.; El Mikkawy, Dalia M.E. (2015). ... The New England Journal of Medicine . 365 (7): 661–3. doi : 10.1056/NEJMe1107384 . ... "A mosaic activating mutation in AKT1 associated with the Proteus syndrome" . N Engl J Med . 365 (7): 611–9. doi : 10.1056/NEJMoa1104017 .
Philadelphia, PA: Mosby/Elsevier. pp. 3927–3931. ISBN 978-0-323-03329-9 . Further reading [ edit ] Edmunds, JO (Aug 2006). "Traumatic dislocations and instability of the trapeziometacarpal joint of the thumb" (PDF) . Hand Clinics . 22 (3): 365–92. doi : 10.1016/j.hcl.2006.05.001 .
Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology . Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6 . ^ a b Grenader, Tal; Shavit, Linda (Aug 18, 2011). "Scrotal Calcinosis". New England Journal of Medicine . 365 (7): 647. doi : 10.1056/NEJMicm1013803 .
Kanski's clinical ophthalmology : a systematic approach (9th ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7020-7713-5 . OCLC 1131846767 . ^ Myron, Yanoff; Jay S., Duker (2019). ... Edinburgh: Elsevier. p. 206. ISBN 978-0-323-52821-4 . OCLC 1051774434 . ^ a b Bowling, Brad (2015-03-24). ... Weedon's Skin Pathology . ISBN 978-0-7020-3485-5 . ^ Sutphin, John (ed.). 2007-2008 Basic and Clinical Science Course Section 8: External Disease and Cornea . American Academy Ophthalmology. p. 365. ISBN 1-56055-814-8 . ^ Kisling, David (2010-06-26).
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the gene encoding hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS; 609806), also referred to as porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD), on chromosome 11q23. Description Porphyrias are inherited defects in the biosynthesis of heme. Acute intermittent porphyria, the most common form of porphyria, is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of abdominal pain, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and neurologic disturbances. In the classic form of AIP, both the ubiquitous 'nonerythroid' housekeeping HMBS isoform and the 'erythroid' HMBS isoform are deficient. However, about 5% of families have the 'nonerythroid variant' of AIP, with a defect only in the ubiquitous nonerythroid HMBS isoform and normal levels of the erythroid HMBS isoform.
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is one of the liver (hepatic) porphyrias . AIP is caused by low levels of porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD), an enzyme also often called hydroxymethylbilane synthase. The low levels of PBGD are generally not sufficient to cause symptoms; however, activating factors such as hormones, drugs, and dietary changes may trigger symptoms. Although most individuals with AIP never develop symptoms, symptomatic individuals typically present with abdominal pain with nausea. Treatment is dependent on the symptoms.
A rare, severe form of the acute hepatic porphyrias characterized by the occurrence of neuro-visceral attacks without cutaneous manifestations. Clinical description Patients suffer intermittent neuro-visceral attacks that can persist for several days and that repeat over several weeks. These attacks manifest as intense abdominal pain (>95% of cases) and neurological and/or psychological symptoms. The abdominal pain is often associated with lumbago irradiating to the thighs, and with nausea, vomiting and relentless constipation. Psychological symptoms are variable: irritability, emotionality, depression, considerable anxiety and, more rarely, auditory and visual hallucinations, disorientation, mental confusion.
Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine . (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-138076-0 . ^ Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). ... Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia . 89 (6): 865–877. doi : 10.1590/abd1806-4841.20142966 . ISSN 0365-0596 . PMC 4230654 . PMID 25387490 . ^ Bolotin, Diana; Petronic-Rosic, Vesna (2011). ... Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology . 28 (3): 505–506. doi : 10.1016/S0190-9622(08)81769-0 . ISSN 0190-9622 . PMID 8445075 . ^ Johnson, H.
Dermatitis herpetiformis is a rare, chronic, skin disorder characterized by groups of severely itchy blisters and raised skin lesions. These are more common on the knees, elbows, buttocks and shoulder blades. The slow onset of symptoms usually begins during adulthood, but children can also be affected. Other symptoms may include fluid-filled sores; red lesions that resemble hives; and itchiness, redness and burning. The exact cause of this disease is not known, but it is frequently associated with the inability to digest gluten.
A chronic autoimmune subepidermal bullous disease characterized by grouped pruritic lesions such as papules, urticarial plaques, erythema, and herpetiform vesiculae, with a predominantly symmetrical distribution on extensor surfaces of the elbows (90%), knees (30%), shoulders, buttocks, sacral region, and face of children and adults. Erosions, excoriations and hyperpigmentation usually follow. It may also appear as a consequence of gluten intolerance.
Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) and celiac disease (CD; 212750) are gluten-sensitive diseases. In classic CD the small intestine is predominantly affected, whereas in DH the skin is also affected, showing typical rash and IgA deposits. Reunala (1996) reported on the familial incidence of DH in a prospective study started in 1969 in Finland. A total of 1,018 patients with DH were diagnosed and questioned for positive family histories. Of the 999 unrelated DH patients, 105 (10.5%) had 1 or several affected first-degree relatives.