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Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology . Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6 . ^ Prat C, Lemaire O, Bret J, Zabraniecki L, Fournié B (May 2008). ... Archives de Médecine des Infants . Paris. 32 : 129–135. ISSN 0365-4311 . ^ synd/2108 at Who Named It?
Mucopolysaccharidosis type IV (MPS IV), also known as Morquio syndrome, is a progressive condition that mainly affects the skeleton. The rate at which symptoms worsen varies among affected individuals. The first signs and symptoms of MPS IV usually become apparent during early childhood. Affected individuals develop various skeletal abnormalities, including short stature, knock knees , and abnormalities of the ribs, chest, spine, hips, and wrists. People with MPS IV often have joints that are loose and very flexible (hypermobile), but they may also have restricted movement in certain joints. A characteristic feature of this condition is underdevelopment (hypoplasia) of a peg-like bone in the neck called the odontoid process.
Summary Clinical characteristics. The phenotypic spectrum of mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) is a continuum that ranges from a severe and rapidly progressive early-onset form to a slowly progressive later-onset form. Children with MPS IVA have no distinctive clinical findings at birth. The severe form is usually apparent between ages one and three years, often first manifesting as kyphoscoliosis, knock-knee (genu valgum), and pectus carinatum; the slowly progressive form may not become evident until late childhood or adolescence often first manifesting as hip problems (pain, stiffness, and Legg Perthes disease). Progressive bone and joint involvement leads to short stature, and eventually to disabling pain and arthritis. Involvement of other organ systems can lead to significant morbidity, including respiratory compromise, obstructive sleep apnea, valvular heart disease, hearing impairment, visual impairment from corneal clouding, dental abnormalities, and hepatomegaly.
Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA, also called Morquio syndrome, type A) is a metabolic condition that primarily affects the skeleton. The severity, age of onset, and associated symptoms vary significantly from person to person and range from a severe and rapidly progressive, early-onset form to a slowly progressive, later-onset form. The severe form is usually diagnosed between ages 1 and 3, while the milder form may not become evident until late childhood or adolescence. Signs and symptoms include various skeletal abnormalities such as short stature, knock knees, pectus carinatum , and malformations of the spine, hips and wrists. Affected people may also experience involvement of other organ systems such as respiratory problems, valvular heart disease , hearing impairment, corneal clouding , dental abnormalities, hepatomegaly , and spinal cord compression.
In Dogger Bank itch, sensitivity is acquired after repeated handling of the sea chervils that become entangled in fishing nets. [ citation needed ] The specific toxin responsible for the rash was determined to be the sulfur -bearing salt (2-hydroxyethyl) dimethylsulfoxonium chloride.  This salt is also found in some sea sponges and has potent in vitro activity against leukemia cells.  Treatment [ edit ] A study of two cases in 2001 suggests that the rash responds to oral ciclosporin . ... The sea chervil, abundant in the area, frequently came up with the fishing nets and had to be thrown back into the water. ... Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology . Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6 . ^ Bonnevie, P. (1948). ... Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B . 128 (1): 27–30. doi : 10.1016/S1096-4959(00)00316-X . CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( link ) ^ a b Bowers PW, Julian CG., PW; Julian, CG (2001).
Retiform parapsoriasis Specialty Dermatology Retiform parapsoriasis is a cutaneous condition, considered to be a type of large-plaque parapsoriasis .  It is characterized by widespread, ill-defined plaques on the skin, that have a net-like or zebra-striped pattern.  Skin atrophy , a wasting away of the cutaneous tissue , usually occurs within the area of these plaques.  See also [ edit ] Parapsoriasis Poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans List of cutaneous conditions References [ edit ] ^ a b Lambert WC, Everett MA (Oct 1981). ... St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0 . External links [ edit ] Classification D ICD - 10 : L41.5 ICD - 9-CM : 696.2 v t e Papulosquamous disorders Psoriasis Pustular Generalized pustular psoriasis ( Impetigo herpetiformis ) Acropustulosis / Pustulosis palmaris et plantaris ( Pustular bacterid ) Annular pustular psoriasis Localized pustular psoriasis Other Guttate psoriasis Psoriatic arthritis Psoriatic erythroderma Drug-induced psoriasis Inverse psoriasis Napkin psoriasis Seborrheic-like psoriasis Parapsoriasis Pityriasis lichenoides ( Pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta , Pityriasis lichenoides chronica ) Lymphomatoid papulosis Small plaque parapsoriasis ( Digitate dermatosis , Xanthoerythrodermia perstans ) Large plaque parapsoriasis ( Retiform parapsoriasis ) Other pityriasis Pityriasis rosea Pityriasis rubra pilaris Pityriasis rotunda Pityriasis amiantacea Other lichenoid Lichen planus configuration Annular Linear morphology Hypertrophic Atrophic Bullous Ulcerative Actinic Pigmented site Mucosal Nails Peno-ginival Vulvovaginal overlap synromes with lichen sclerosus with lupus erythematosis other: Hepatitis-associated lichen planus Lichen planus pemphigoides Other Lichen nitidus Lichen striatus Lichen ruber moniliformis Gianotti–Crosti syndrome Erythema dyschromicum perstans Idiopathic eruptive macular pigmentation Keratosis lichenoides chronica Kraurosis vulvae Lichen sclerosus Lichenoid dermatitis Lichenoid reaction of graft-versus-host disease This dermatology article is a stub .
They are due to elevated cytosolic calcium concentrations, classically seen with digoxin toxicity.   The overload of the sarcoplasmic reticulum may cause spontaneous Ca 2+ release after repolarization, causing the released Ca 2+ to exit the cell through the 3Na + /Ca 2+ -exchanger. This results in a net depolarizing current. The classical feature is Bidirectional ventricular tachycardia . ... Neuroscience. ^ Katzung, B: Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (10th ed.), chapter 14: "Agents Used in Cardiac Arrhythmias", The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2007, ISBN 978-0-07-145153-6 ^ Lilly, L: "Pathophysiology of Heart Disease", chapter 11: "Mechanisms of Cardiac Arrhthmias", Lippencott, Williams and Wilkens, 2007 This article about a medical condition affecting the circulatory system is a stub .
.; et al. (2006), Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology , Saunders Elsevier, ISBN 0-7216-2921-0 ^ Marques, Silvio Alencar (October 2013). ... Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia . 88 (5): 700–711. doi : 10.1590/abd1806-4841.20132463 . ISSN 0365-0596 . PMC 3798345 . PMID 24173174 . ^ Queiroz-Telles, Flavio; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Falci, Diego R; Caceres, Diego H; Chiller, Tom; Pasqualotto, Alessandro C (November 2017). ... PMID 19879504 . ^ RESTREPO, ANGELA; TOBÓN, ANGELA MARÍA (2010), "Paracoccidioides brasiliensis", Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases , Elsevier, pp. 3357–3363, doi : 10.1016/b978-0-443-06839-3.00268-x , ISBN 9780443068393 ^ Felipe, Maria S.
A rare mycosis characterized by an acute form mostly occurring in children and young adults presenting with fever, weight loss, lymph node enlargement, hepatosplenomegaly, and bone marrow dysfunction, versus a chronic form which usually involves the lungs and mucosae of the upper respiratory tract, skin, lymph nodes, and adrenal glands, but may affect any part of the body. The most common sequelae are chronic respiratory insufficiency and Addison's disease. The infectious agent, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis , is a fungus limited to Latin America.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because pachyonychia congenita-4 (PC4) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the KRT6B gene (148042) on chromosome 12q13. Description Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with the main clinical features of hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful and highly debilitating plantar keratoderma, oral leukokeratosis, and a variety of epidermal cysts. Although the condition had previously been subdivided clinically into Jadassohn-Lewandowsky PC type 1 and Jackson-Lawler PC type 2, patients with PC were later found to have a mixed constellation of both types, leading to a classification of PC based on genotype (summary by Sybert, 2010; Eliason et al., 2012; McLean et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pachyonychia congenita, see 167200. Historical Classification of Pachyonychia Congenita Gorlin et al. (1976) suggested that 2 distinct syndromes are subsumed under the designation pachyonychia congenita.
Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a rare genodermatosis predominantly featuring painful palmoplantar keratoderma, thickened nails, cysts and whitish oral mucosa. Epidemiology The prevalence is not known but approximately 1000 patients have been registered to date worldwide. Clinical description PC presents clinically as a spectrum of conditions. PC onset is variable with most cases manifesting soon after birth, others becoming clinically apparent only in late childhood and rarely in adulthood. The first signs of the disease usually are thickened nails or neonatal teeth.
Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a rare inherited condition that primarily affects the nails and skin. The fingernails and toenails may be thickened and abnormally shaped . Affected people can also develop painful calluses and blisters on the soles of their feet and less frequently on the palms of their hands ( palmoplantar keratoderma ). Additional features include white patches on the tongue and inside of the mouth (leukokeratosis); bumps around the elbows, knees, and waistline (follicular hyperkeratosis); and cysts of various types including steatocystoma. Features may vary among affected people depending on their specific mutation.
For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pachyonychia congenita, see 167200. Inheritance Chong-Hai and Rajagopalan (1977) suggested autosomal recessive inheritance of pachyonychia congenita in a 4-year-old Malaysian girl with first-cousin parents, although they recognized new dominant mutation as a possibility. See also Sivasundram et al. (1985). INHERITANCE - Autosomal recessive HEAD & NECK Mouth - No oral leukoplakia SKIN, NAILS, & HAIR Skin - Horny papules (face, leg, buttocks) - No palmoplantar hyperkeratosis - No hyperhidrosis Nails - Episodic inflammatory swelling of nail bed - Recurrent shedding of nails - Hard,thickened nails (pachyonychia) - Subungual hyperkeratosis MISCELLANEOUS - See also pachyonychia congenita, type 3 (PC1, 167200 ) ▲ Close
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because pachyonychia congenita-3 (PC3) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the keratin-6a gene (KRT6A; 148041) on chromosome 12q13. Description Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with the main clinical features of hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful and highly debilitating plantar keratoderma, oral leukokeratosis, and a variety of epidermal cysts. Although the condition had previously been subdivided clinically into Jadassohn-Lewandowsky PC type 1 and Jackson-Lawler PC type 2, patients with PC were later found to have a mixed constellation of both types, leading to a classification of PC based on genotype (summary by Sybert, 2010; Eliason et al., 2012; McLean et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pachyonychia congenita, see 167200. Historical Classification of Pachyonychia Congenita Gorlin et al. (1976) suggested that 2 distinct syndromes are subsumed under the designation pachyonychia congenita.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that pachyonychia congenita-2 (PC2) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the KRT17 gene (148069) on chromosome 17q21. Description Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with the main clinical features of hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful and highly debilitating plantar keratoderma, oral leukokeratosis, and a variety of epidermal cysts. Although the condition had previously been subdivided clinically into Jadassohn-Lewandowsky PC type 1 and Jackson-Lawler PC type 2, patients with PC were later found to have a mixed constellation of both types, leading to a classification of PC based on genotype (summary by Sybert, 2010; Eliason et al., 2012; McLean et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pachyonychia congenita, see 167200. Historical Classification of Pachyonychia Congenita Gorlin et al. (1976) suggested that 2 distinct syndromes are subsumed under the designation pachyonychia congenita.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because pachyonychia congenita-1 (PC1) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the keratin-16 gene (KRT16; 148067) on chromosome 17q21. Description Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with the main clinical features of hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful and highly debilitating plantar keratoderma, oral leukokeratosis, and a variety of epidermal cysts. Although the condition had previously been subdivided clinically into Jadassohn-Lewandowsky PC type 1 and Jackson-Lawler PC type 2, patients with PC were later found to have a mixed constellation of both types, leading to a classification of PC based on genotype (summary by Sybert, 2010; Eliason et al., 2012; McLean et al., 2011). Historical Classification of Pachyonychia Congenita Gorlin et al. (1976) suggested that 2 distinct syndromes are subsumed under the designation pachyonychia congenita. PC type 1, the Jadassohn-Lewandowsky type, shows oral leukokeratosis.
The chalky grayish-white particles within the tumor mass correspond to foci of cartilage on histology; the semi-translucent membrane covering the lens in some tumors corresponds to spreading neoplastic cells.   Tumor cells form a characteristic diktyomatous pattern, with folded cords and sheets resembling a fisherman's net.  In early development of the retina, the medullary epithelial cells acquire polarity, such that a basement membrane associated with the vitreous forms the internal limiting membrane on one side, while terminal bars form the outer limiting membrane on the other side. ... American Journal of Ophthalmology . 130 (3): 364–366. doi : 10.1016/S0002-9394(00)00542-0 . ^ a b c d e Vajaranant, Thasarat S.; Mafee, Mahmood F.; Kapur, Rashmi; Rapoport, Mark; Edward, Deepak P. ... American Journal of Ophthalmology . 133 (6): 841–843. doi : 10.1016/S0002-9394(02)01432-0 . ^ Janss, Anna J.; Yachnis, Anthony T.; Silber, Jeffrey H.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.
Medulloepithelioma of the central nervous system is a rare, primitive neuroectodermal tumor characterized by papillary, tubular and trabecular arrangements of neoplastic neuroepithelium, mimicking the embryonic neural tube, most commonly found in the periventricular region within the cerebral hemispheres, but has also been reported in brainstem and cerebellum. It usually presents in childhood with headache, nausea, vomiting, facial nerve paresis, and/or cerebellar ataxia, and typically has a progressive course, highly malignant behavior and poor prognosis. Hearing and visual loss have also been observed.
Medulloepithelioma Histopathology of medulloepithelioma showing characteristic neural tube like strands. Specialty Neurosurgery , oncology Medulloepithelioma is a rare, primitive, fast-growing brain tumour thought to stem from cells of the embryonic medullary cavity .  Tumours originating in the ciliary body of the eye are referred to as embryonal medulloepitheliomas,  or diktyomas .  A highly malignant undifferentiated primitive neuroepithelial tumour of children, medulloepithelioma may contain bone , cartilage , skeletal muscle , and tends to metastasize extracranially.  Contents 1 Signs and symptoms 2 Diagnosis 2.1 Classification 3 Treatment 4 Prognosis 5 Epidemiology 6 References 7 External links Signs and symptoms [ edit ] Medulloepithelioma have been reported to occur in the cerebral hemispheres , brainstem , cerebellum , and peripheral sites .     Due to rapid growth of the tumour, patients typically present with increased intracranial pressure , seizures , and focal neurologic signs .  Diagnosis [ edit ] Neuronal differentiation, ranging from neuroblasts to ganglion cells, is seen in some medulloepitheliomas. Imaging studies such as Computerized Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can aid diagnosis . Medulloepithelioma appears isodense or hypodense with variable heterogeneity and calcification on non-contrast CT scan, and enhances with contrast.  This radiographical finding is consistent with a primitive neuroectodermal tumour, especially in children.  Blood studies and imaging studies of the abdomen may be used to detect metastases.  Needle aspiration biopsy can be used to aid diagnosis.  Definitive diagnosis requires histopathological examination of surgically excised tumour tissues. Histologically, medulloepithelioma resemble a primitive neural tube and with neuronal, glial and mesenchymal elements.   Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes may also be observed.  Immunohistochemically , neural tube-like structures are vimentin positive in the majority of medulloepitheliomas.  Poorly differentiated medulloepitheliomas are vimentin negative.
The disease has also been reported affecting the commercial salmon fisheries of the United States, Australia, New Zealand, France, Spain, Ireland and Chile.  It was first diagnosed in the summer of 1984/1985 in populations of Atlantic salmon off the east coast of Tasmania and was found to be caused by N. perurans n.sp.  Contents 1 Clinical signs and diagnosis 2 Treatment and control 3 Notes 4 References Clinical signs and diagnosis [ edit ] Symptoms typically begin to appear two months after the fish are transferred from freshwater hatcheries to open net sea cages.  Symptoms include mucus build-up on the gills of infected fish and hyper-plastic lesions, causing white spots and eventual deterioration of the gill tissue. ... searchQuery=amoebic+gill+disease&moduleId=2708303&moduleFilter=&categoryFilter=&startAt=0 [ permanent dead link ] ^ "Neoparamoeba perurans n. sp., an agent of amoebic gill disease of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)". ... searchQuery=amoebic+gill+disease&moduleId=2708303&moduleFilter=&categoryFilter=&startAt=0 [ permanent dead link ] ^ https://www.int-res.com/articles/dao/25/d025p023.pdf ^ http://eafp.org/display/Search?searchQuery=amoebic+gill+disease&moduleId=2708303&moduleFilter=&categoryFilter=&startAt=0 [ permanent dead link ] References [ edit ] Amoebic Gill Disease Wikivet .
Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología . 77 (11): 597–604. ISSN 0365-6691 . PMID 12410405 . Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. ^ Bennett QM (June 2008). ... Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1-305-53720-0 . ^ Gregory, Richard Langton (1977). ... Philadelphia: Mosby / Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-323-03599-6 . OCLC 853286620 . ^ Polat U., Schor C., Tong J., Zomet A., Lev M., Yehezkel O., Sterkin A., Levi D.M. (2012).
Overview Presbyopia is the gradual loss of your eyes' ability to focus on nearby objects. It's a natural, often annoying part of aging. Presbyopia usually becomes noticeable in your early to mid-40s and continues to worsen until around age 65. You may become aware of presbyopia when you start holding books and newspapers at arm's length to be able to read them. A basic eye exam can confirm presbyopia. You can correct the condition with eyeglasses or contact lenses. You might also consider surgery. Symptoms Presbyopia develops gradually.
Affluenza: How to Be Successful and Stay Sane . Vermilion . ISBN 978-0-09-190011-3 . ^ James, Oliver (2008). The Selfish Capitalist . Vermilion . ISBN 978-0-09-192381-5 . ^ James, Oliver (2007). ... London: Vermilion. p. 344 . ISBN 978-0-09-190010-6 . 1. The mean prevalence of emotional distress for the six English-speaking nations combined was 21.6%. ... (Archive is the same work, but on a different website) Further reading [ edit ] The Circle of Simplicity , Cecile Andrews, ISBN 0-06-092872-7 The Golden Ghetto: The Psychology of Affluence , Jessie H. O'Neill, ISBN 978-0-9678554-0-0 Voluntary Simplicity , Duane Elgin, ISBN 0-688-12119-5 Voluntary Simplicity , Daniel Doherty & Amitai Etzioni, ISBN 0-7425-2066-8 How Much Is Too Much?
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 1152. ISBN 0-7817-7513-2 . ^ Pryse-Phillips, William (2003). ... Oxford University Press US. p. 587. ISBN 0-19-515938-1 . ^ Bradley, Walter George (2004). ... Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 2695. ISBN 0-7817-5777-0 . ^ Miller, Neil R.; Frank Burton Walsh; Valérie Biousse; William Fletcher Hoyt (2005). ... Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 1289. ISBN 0-7817-4811-9 . ^ a b Loder, Elizabeth; Dawn A. ... McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 127. ISBN 0-07-105467-7 . ^ G. D. Schott (2007).
Characteristics [ edit ] Botellón usually begins around 11:00 p.m. and ends around 3:00 a.m. when many people move to a bar or club. ... Since botellón is usually a nighttime activity, Spain passed a law that prohibits stores to sell alcohol to the public after 10:00 p.m, hoping to persuade people to attend clubs or bars where alcohol must remain on site. [ citation needed ] However, the measure is a controversial one because people can still buy alcohol before the selling limit hour and consume it in public. ... One example of a macro-botellón was on 17 March 2006, "Half of Spain [met] on the net to organize a macro-botellón".  The macro-botellón was organized in cities around Spain, such as Madrid, Barcelona, Sevilla, Oviedo, Murcia, Vitoria, Málaga, Córdoba, Granada, and Jaén.  One of the purposes of the macro-botellón on 17 March 2006, near the Faro de Moncloa in Madrid, Spain, was to protest against the municipal restrictions on drinking alcohol in the streets. ... CS1 maint: archived copy as title ( link ) ^ "Media España se cita en la Red para celebrar un macrobotellón el 17 de marzo" . 2006-03-07. ^ http://www.20minutos.es/noticia/97295/0/macrobotellones/ciudades/espana/ | Literally translated from Spanish ^ "El Ayuntamiento "no consentirá" el macrobotellón que se prepara en Moncloa" . 2006-03-07.
DD = developmental delay; ID = intellectual disability; OT = occupational therapy; PT = physical therapy Developmental Disability / Intellectual Disability Management Issues The following information represents typical management recommendations for individuals with developmental delay / intellectual disability in the United States; standard recommendations may vary from country to country. Ages 0-3 years. Referral to an early intervention program is recommended for access to occupational, physical, speech, and feeding therapy as well as infant mental health services, special educators, and sensory impairment specialists.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type III, also known as autosomal recessive optic atrophy-3 or optic atrophy plus syndrome, is caused by mutation in the OPA3 gene (606580). See also autosomal dominant optic atrophy-3 (165300), an allelic disorder with a less severe phenotype. For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, see MGCA type I (250950). Description Type III 3-methylglutaconic aciduria is a neuroophthalmologic syndrome consisting of early-onset bilateral optic atrophy and later-onset spasticity, extrapyramidal dysfunction, and cognitive deficit. Urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid and of 3-methylglutaric acid is increased (Anikster et al., 2001).
Costeff syndrome is an inherited condition characterized by vision loss, delayed development, and movement problems. Vision loss is primarily caused by degeneration (atrophy) of the optic nerves , which carry information from the eyes to the brain. This optic nerve atrophy often begins in infancy or early childhood and results in vision impairment that worsens over time. Some affected individuals have rapid and involuntary eye movements (nystagmus) or eyes that do not look in the same direction (strabismus). Development of motor skills, such as walking, is often delayed in people with Costeff syndrome.
3-methylglutaconic aciduria type III (MGA III) is an organic aciduria characterised by the association of optic atrophy and choreoathetosis with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. Epidemiology The vast majority of reported cases involved the Iraqi-Jewish population, in which the prevalence of the disorder has been estimated at around 1 in 10 000. Clinical description Onset of the optic atrophy occurs during infancy with a progressive decrease in visual acuity. The choreoathetoid movement disorder manifests later, usually within the first ten years of life. Other clinical features may include spastic paraparesis, mild ataxia and cognitive deficit, dysarthria, and nystagmus.
Avoiding mosquito bites, such as by using insecticide -treated mosquito bed nets , also reduces the transmission of lymphatic filariasis.   The Carter Center 's International Task Force for Disease Eradication declared lymphatic filariasis one of six potentially eradicable diseases.  According to medical experts, the worldwide effort to eliminate lymphatic filariasis is on track to potentially succeed by 2020.  For similar-looking but causally unrelated podoconiosis , international awareness of the disease will have to increase before elimination is possible. ... Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology . Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6 . ^ a b Pfarr KM, Debrah AY, Specht S, Hoerauf A (November 2009). ... Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function . McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-287506-5 . ^ a b c "Parasites - Lymphatic Filariasis" . cdc.gov . ... Wallingford: CAB International. pp. 1–848. ISBN 0-85198-689-7 . ^ Grove, David I (2014). ... Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 1–602. ISBN 978-0-19-964102-4 . ^ Burma D.P. (2010).
Lymphatic filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by microscopic, thread-like worms that only live in the human lymph system , which maintains the body's fluid balance and fights infections. It is spread from person to person by mosquitoes. Most infected people are asymptomatic and never develop clinical symptoms. A small percentage of people develop lymphedema , which may affect the legs, arms, breasts, and genitalia; bacterial infections that cause hardening and thickening of the skin, called elephantiasis; hydrocele (swelling of the scrotum) in men; and pulmonary tropical eosinophilia syndrome . Treatment may include a yearly dose of medicine, called diethylcarbamazine (DEC); while this drug does not kill all of the adult worms, it prevents infected people from giving the disease to someone else.
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a severe form of filariasis (see this term), caused by the parasitic worms Wuchereria bancrofti , Brugia malayi and Brugia timori , and the most common cause of acquired lymphedema worldwide. LF is endemic to tropical and subtropical regions. The vast majority of infected patients are asymptomatic but it can also cause a variety of clinical manifestations, including limb lymphedema, genital anomalies (hydrocele, chylocele), elephantiasis in later stages of the disease (frequently in the lower extremities), and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (nocturnal paroxysmal cough and wheezing, weight loss, low-grade fever, adenopathy, and pronounced blood eosinophilia). Renal involvement (hematuria, proteinuria, nephritic syndrome, glomerulonephritis), and mono-arthritis of the knee or ankle joint have also been reported.
However in some cases, a pancreatic NET occurs outside of the pancreas. A NET arises from cells that produce hormones, so the tumor can also produce hormones. ... Pancreatic NETs are called either functional or nonfunctional. A functional pancreatic NET causes specific symptoms because it makes extra hormones, such as gastrin, insulin, or glucagon. ... Pancreatic NETs can be hard to diagnosis, often not identified until 5 to 10 years after they begin to grow. Most pancreatic NETs are not inherited and occur sporadically in people with no family history of NETs.
Pancreatic endocrine tumor, also known as pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET), describes a group of endocrine tumors originating in the pancreas that are usually indolent and benign, but may have the potential to be malignant. They can be functional, exhibiting a hormonal hypersecretion syndrome, but can be non-functional presenting with non-specific symptoms and include insulinoma, glucagonoma, VIPoma, somatostatinoma (SSoma), PPoma and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES, or gastrinoma) and other ectopic hormone producing tumors (such as GRFoma) (see these terms). Epidemiology Prevalence in the U.S. is estimated at 1/4,000-1/3,300 and 1/37,000 in Japan, but this is likely an underestimate due to a low detection rate. Clinical description PNETs, when functional, usually present in the 5th decade of life as various hypersecretion syndromes. These include insulinoma presenting with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia; glucagonoma with necrolytic migratory erythema, diabetes mellitus, and thomboembolisms; VIPoma with watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and or hypo/achlorhydia; SSoma with diabetes mellitus, cholelithiasis, steatorrhea and hypochlorhydria; and ZES with severe peptic ulcer disease.