These substances have been used for dancing, socializing, communal celebration and other purposes.  The rise of online websites and hookup apps in the 1990s gave men new ways of cruising and meeting sexual partners, including the ability to arrange private sexual gatherings in their homes.  From the early 2000s, historic venues of gay socialization such as bars, clubs, and dance events reduced in number in response to a range of factors, including gentrification, zoning laws, licensing restrictions, and the increased number of closeted or under the influence sexually labile men, and the increasing popularity of digital technologies for sexual and social purposes.  In this context, PNP emerged as an alternative form of sexualized partying that enabled participants to avoid the public scrutiny and potentially judgmental and anxiety provoking nature of the "public space". ... In some instances, PNP sessions play a part in the formation of loose social networks that are valued and relied upon by participants.  For other men, increasing reliance on hookup apps and websites to arrange sex may result in a sense of isolation that may exacerbate the risk of drug dependence, especially in the context of a lack of other venues for gay socializing and sexual community-formation.  A 2014 study found that one of the key reasons for taking drugs before and during sex was to boost sexual confidence and reduce feelings of self-doubt, regarding feelings of "internalised homophobia" from society, concerns about an HIV diagnosis, or "guilt related to having or desiring gay sex". A key self-confidence issue for study participants was "body image", a concern that was heightened by the focus on social networking apps on appearance, because on these apps, there is a focus on idealized male bodies that are "toned and muscular". ... Retrieved 2019-09-12 . ^ Vol. 32, No. 3 Behavioral and Psychosocial Research Sexualized Drug Use (Chemsex) Is Associated with High-Risk Sexual Behaviors and Sexually Transmitted Infections in HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men: Data from the U-SEX GESIDA 9416 Study Alicia González-Baeza, Helen Dolengevich-Segal, Ignacio Pérez-Valero, Alfonso Cabello, María Jesús Téllez, José Sanz, Leire Pérez-Latorre, José Ignacio Bernardino, Jesús Troya, Sara De La Fuente, Otilia Bisbal, Ignacio Santos, Sari Arponen, Víctor Hontañon, José Luis Casado, and Pablo Ryan, the U-SEX GESIDA 9416 Study ^ "What is ChemSex" . 2018-06-02 . Retrieved 2018-06-11 . ^ a b c d e f g h San Francisco Meth Zombies (TV documentary). ... 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