The New England Journal of Medicine . 365 (7): 661–3. doi : 10.1056/NEJMe1107384 . ... "A mosaic activating mutation in AKT1 associated with the Proteus syndrome" . N Engl J Med . 365 (7): 611–9. doi : 10.1056/NEJMoa1104017 .
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because this form of nonobstructive spermatogenic failure, designated Y-linked spermatogenic failure-2 (SPGFY2), is most often caused by interstitial deletions on the Y chromosome. Complete deletion of the AZFc interval of the Y chromosome is the most common known genetic cause of human male infertility. In addition, mutations in the USP9Y gene (400005) are associated with nonobstructive azoospermia and hypospermatogenesis. Description About 2 to 3% of human males are infertile because of defects in sperm function, primarily due to oligozoospermia (defined as less than 10-15 million sperm per mL of semen) or azoospermia (Hull et al., 1985). Heterogeneity of Spermatogenic Failure For a discussion of Y-linked spermatogenic failure due to Sertoli cell-only syndrome, see 400042.
Male sterility due to chromosome Y deletion is characterized by a severe deficiency of spermatogenesis. Chromosome Y deletions are a frequent genetic cause of male infertility. Epidemiology Estimated prevalence is 1/2500. Etiology Five to 10% of cases of azoospermia (absent sperm) or severe secretory-type oligospermia (<1 million spermatozoa/mL semen) are associated with microdeletions in the euchromatic portion of the Y-chromosome long arm, at the AZF locus (Azoospermia Factor). Several subregions are distinguished in the AZF locus. In this region, the structure of the Y-chromosome is rich in repeated palindromes and recombination between two flanking sequences sharing a high degree of homology leads to various deletions: 1) AZFa deletions (recombination between the sequences HERV15yq1 and HERV15yq2 ); the rarest - ii) AZFb or P5/proximal-P1 deletions, iii) AZFb+c deletions, of which two types are distinguished: P5/distal-P1 or P4/distal-P1 and iv) AZFc deletions caused by recombination between palindromes b2 and b4. Diagnostic methods Diagnosis is made on the basis of azoospermia or oligozoospermia in otherwise healthy males after exclusion of other causes of infertility.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because Sertoli cell-only (SCO) syndrome has been found to be associated with interstitial deletions in the 'azoospermia factor' (AZF) region on the long arm of the Y chromosome, particularly deletions of the AZFa region, which includes the ubiquitin-specific protease 9 gene (USP9Y; 400005), the DEAD/H box 3 gene (DBY; 400010), and the ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat gene (UTY; 400009). Description In the evaluation of male infertility, the Sertoli cell-only (SCO) syndrome is diagnosed on testicular biopsy when either no germ cells are visible in any seminiferous tubules (SCO type I) or germ cells are present in a minority of tubules (SCO type II). It is believed that the latter variant arises from a failure to complete differentiation and maturation of spermatocytes and spermatids, leading to degeneration of germ cells within most tubules (Sargent et al., 1999). Another, possibly X-linked, form of Sertoli cell-only syndrome has also been reported (305700). Heterogeneity of Spermatogenic Failure See 415000 for a general discussion of the AZF region of the Y chromosome and Y-linked nonobstructive spermatogenic failure.
Multiple myeloma is a cancer that develops in the bone marrow , the spongy tissue found in the center of most bones. The bone marrow produces red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body; white blood cells, which form the body's defenses (immune system); and platelets, which are necessary for blood clotting . Multiple myeloma is characterized by abnormalities in plasma cells, a type of white blood cell. These abnormal cells multiply out of control, increasing from about one percent of cells in the bone marrow to the majority of bone marrow cells. The abnormal cells form tumors within the bone, causing bone pain and an increased risk of fractures.
A plasma cell disorder characterized by the aggregation and deposition of insoluble amyloid fibrils derived from misfolding of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains usually produced by a plasma cell tumor. It usually presents as primary systemic amyloidosis (PSA) with multiple organ involvement and less frequently as primary localized amyloidosis (PLA) restricted to a single organ.
AL amyloidosisis the most common form of amyloidosis, a group of disorders in which an abnormal protein called amyloid builds up in tissues and organs. The signs and symptoms of AL amyloidosis vary among patients because the build up may occur in the tongue, intestines, muscles, joints, nerves, skin, ligaments, heart, liver, spleen, or kidneys. To diagnose AL amyloidosis, healthcare professionals use blood or urine tests to identify signs of amyloid protein and a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment may include chemotherapy directed at the abnormal plasma cells, stem cell transplantation , or other treatments based on which symptoms have developed.
Primary systemic amyloidosis (PSA) is a form of AL amyloidosis (see this term) caused by the aggregation and deposition of insoluble amyloid fibrils derived from misfolded monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains usually produced by a plasma cell tumor (see this term) and characterized by multiple organ involvement.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the gene encoding hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS; 609806), also referred to as porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD), on chromosome 11q23. Description Porphyrias are inherited defects in the biosynthesis of heme. Acute intermittent porphyria, the most common form of porphyria, is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of abdominal pain, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and neurologic disturbances. In the classic form of AIP, both the ubiquitous 'nonerythroid' housekeeping HMBS isoform and the 'erythroid' HMBS isoform are deficient. However, about 5% of families have the 'nonerythroid variant' of AIP, with a defect only in the ubiquitous nonerythroid HMBS isoform and normal levels of the erythroid HMBS isoform.
Summary Clinical characteristics. Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), an autosomal dominant disorder, occurs in heterozygotes for an HMBS pathogenic variant that causes reduced activity of the enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase. AIP is considered "overt" in a heterozygote who was previously or is currently symptomatic; AIP is considered "latent" in a heterozygote who has never had symptoms, and typically has been identified during molecular genetic testing of at-risk family members. Note that GeneReviews does not use the term "carrier" for an individual who is heterozygous for an autosomal dominant pathogenic variant; GeneReviews reserves the term "carrier" for an individual who is heterozygous for an autosomal recessive disorder and thus is not expected to ever develop manifestations of the disorder. Overt AIP is characterized clinically by life-threatening acute neurovisceral attacks of severe abdominal pain without peritoneal signs, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, and hypertension. Attacks may be complicated by neurologic findings (mental changes, convulsions, and peripheral neuropathy that may progress to respiratory paralysis), and hyponatremia.
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is one of the liver (hepatic) porphyrias . AIP is caused by low levels of porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD), an enzyme also often called hydroxymethylbilane synthase. The low levels of PBGD are generally not sufficient to cause symptoms; however, activating factors such as hormones, drugs, and dietary changes may trigger symptoms. Although most individuals with AIP never develop symptoms, symptomatic individuals typically present with abdominal pain with nausea. Treatment is dependent on the symptoms.
A rare, severe form of the acute hepatic porphyrias characterized by the occurrence of neuro-visceral attacks without cutaneous manifestations. Clinical description Patients suffer intermittent neuro-visceral attacks that can persist for several days and that repeat over several weeks. These attacks manifest as intense abdominal pain (>95% of cases) and neurological and/or psychological symptoms. The abdominal pain is often associated with lumbago irradiating to the thighs, and with nausea, vomiting and relentless constipation. Psychological symptoms are variable: irritability, emotionality, depression, considerable anxiety and, more rarely, auditory and visual hallucinations, disorientation, mental confusion.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that xanthinuria type II (XAN2) is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the MOCOS gene (613274) on chromosome 18q12. One patient with a heterozygous mutation has been reported. Description Xanthinuria type II is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism resulting from a defect in the synthesis of the molybdenum cofactor, which is necessary for the 2 enzymes that degrade xanthine: XDH (607633) and AOX1 (602841). Most individuals with type II xanthinuria are asymptomatic, but some develop urinary tract calculi, acute renal failure, or myositis due to tissue deposition of xanthine. Laboratory studies show increased serum and urinary hypoxanthine and xanthine and decreased serum and urinary uric acid (summary by Ichida et al., 2001). Two clinically similar but distinct forms of xanthinuria are recognized.
Type II xanthinuria, a type of classical xanthinuria (see this term), is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of purine metabolism (see this term) characterized by the deficiency of both xanthine dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase, leading to the formation of urinary xanthine urolithiasis and leading, in some patients, to kidney failure. Other less common manifestations include arthropathy, myopathy and duodenal ulcer, while some patients remain asymptomatic.
The Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology . 24 (4): 365–373. doi : 10.1097/01.jcp.0000130557.08996.7a . ... The Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology . 24 (2): 365–373. doi : 10.1097/01.jcp.0000130557.08996.7a .
A rare respiratory malformation characterized by a hamartomatous mass of non-functioning lung tissue of variable extent and with variable degrees of cystic or adenomatoid change. Clinical presentation, prognosis, and presence of associated abnormalities depend on the subtype of the lesion. Based on histopathological findings, five subtypes (types 0 to 4) can be differentiated.
Heat cramps , a type of heat illness , are muscle spasms that result from loss of large amount of salt and water through exercise. Heat cramps are associated with cramping in the abdomen , arms and calves . This can be caused by inadequate consumption of fluids or electrolytes .  Heavy sweating causes heat cramps, especially when the water is replaced without also replacing salt or potassium .  Although heat cramps can be quite painful, they usually don't result in permanent damage, though they can be a symptom of heat stroke or heat exhaustion . Heat cramps can indicate a more severe problem in someone with heart disease or if they last for longer than an hour.  In order to prevent them, one may drink electrolyte solutions such as sports drinks during exercise or strenuous work or eat potassium-rich foods like bananas and apples . When heat cramps occur, the affected person should avoid strenuous work and exercise for several hours to allow for recovery.  See also [ edit ] Dehydration References [ edit ] ^ Auerbach Paul S Wilderness Medicine. 4th ed.
Androgens in Health and Disease . Humana Press. pp. 365–379. ISBN 978-1-58829-029-8 . Retrieved 11 June 2012 . ^ Wierman ME, Arlt W, Basson R, Davis SR, Miller KK, Murad MH, Rosner W, Santoro N (October 2014).
"[Diagnosis of renal metanephric adenoma: relevance of immunohistochemistry and biopsy]". Ann Pathol (in French). 27 (5): 365–8. PMID 18185471 . ^ Nagashima Y, Arai N, Tanaka Y, Yoshida S, Sumino K, Ohaki Y, Matsushita K, Morita T, Misugi K 81991) Case record: two cases of renal epithelial tumour resembling immature nephron.
"An open-label study of the efficacy and tolerability of microencapsulated hydroquinone 4% and retinol 0.15% with antioxidants for the treatment of hyperpigmentation". Cutis . 81 (4): 365–71. ISSN 0011-4162 . PMID 18491487 . ^ Mansouri, P.; Farshi, S.; Hashemi, Z.; Kasraee, B. (2015-07-01).
Lentiginosis Specialty Dermatology Lentiginosis refers to the presence of lentigines in large numbers or in a distinctive configuration.  These are spotted areas created by accumulation on the skin due to sun exposure. Due to a high irregularity any distinction from randomness defines lentiginosis. Although lentigines are benign, they be the signal of an underlying problem such as progressive cardiomyopathic lentiginosis which can cause retardation in children.  See also [ edit ] Lentigines Skin cancer List of cutaneous conditions References [ edit ] ^ http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/cgi-bin/omd?lentiginosis ^ "Lentigines - American Osteopathic College of Dermatology (AOCD)" . www.aocd.org . External links [ edit ] Classification D ICD - 10 : L81.4 ( ILDS L81.402, L81.404, L81.406) MeSH : D007911 DiseasesDB : 34325 SNOMED CT : 402624000 v t e Skin cancer of nevi and melanomas Melanoma Mucosal melanoma Superficial spreading melanoma Nodular melanoma lentigo Lentigo maligna / Lentigo maligna melanoma Acral lentiginous melanoma Amelanotic melanoma Desmoplastic melanoma Melanoma with features of a Spitz nevus Melanoma with small nevus-like cells Polypoid melanoma Nevoid melanoma Melanocytic tumors of uncertain malignant potential Nevus / melanocytic nevus Nevus of Ito / Nevus of Ota Spitz nevus Pigmented spindle cell nevus Halo nevus Pseudomelanoma Blue nevus of Jadassohn–Tièche Cellular Epithelioid Deep penetrating Amelanotic Malignant Congenital melanocytic nevus ( Giant Medium-sized Small-sized ) Balloon cell nevus Dysplastic nevus / Dysplastic nevus syndrome Acral nevus Becker's nevus Benign melanocytic nevus Nevus spilus v t e Pigmentation disorders / Dyschromia Hypo- / leucism Loss of melanocytes Vitiligo Quadrichrome vitiligo Vitiligo ponctué Syndromic Alezzandrini syndrome Vogt–Koyanagi–Harada syndrome Melanocyte development Piebaldism Waardenburg syndrome Tietz syndrome Loss of melanin / amelanism Albinism Oculocutaneous albinism Ocular albinism Melanosome transfer Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome Chédiak–Higashi syndrome Griscelli syndrome Elejalde syndrome Griscelli syndrome type 2 Griscelli syndrome type 3 Other Cross syndrome ABCD syndrome Albinism–deafness syndrome Idiopathic guttate hypomelanosis Phylloid hypomelanosis Progressive macular hypomelanosis Leukoderma w/o hypomelanosis Vasospastic macule Woronoff's ring Nevus anemicus Ungrouped Nevus depigmentosus Postinflammatory hypopigmentation Pityriasis alba Vagabond's leukomelanoderma Yemenite deaf-blind hypopigmentation syndrome Wende–Bauckus syndrome Hyper- Melanin / Melanosis / Melanism Reticulated Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis Pigmentatio reticularis faciei et colli Reticulate acropigmentation of Kitamura Reticular pigmented anomaly of the flexures Naegeli–Franceschetti–Jadassohn syndrome Dyskeratosis congenita X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder Galli–Galli disease Revesz syndrome Diffuse/ circumscribed Lentigo / Lentiginosis : Lentigo simplex Liver spot Centrofacial lentiginosis Generalized lentiginosis Inherited patterned lentiginosis in black persons Ink spot lentigo Lentigo maligna Mucosal lentigines Partial unilateral lentiginosis PUVA lentigines Melasma Erythema dyschromicum perstans Lichen planus pigmentosus Café au lait spot Poikiloderma ( Poikiloderma of Civatte Poikiloderma vasculare atrophicans ) Riehl melanosis Linear Incontinentia pigmenti Scratch dermatitis Shiitake mushroom dermatitis Other/ ungrouped Acanthosis nigricans Freckle Familial progressive hyperpigmentation Pallister–Killian syndrome Periorbital hyperpigmentation Photoleukomelanodermatitis of Kobori Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation Transient neonatal pustular melanosis Other pigments Iron Hemochromatosis Iron metallic discoloration Pigmented purpuric dermatosis Schamberg disease Majocchi's disease Gougerot–Blum syndrome Doucas and Kapetanakis pigmented purpura / Eczematid-like purpura of Doucas and Kapetanakis Lichen aureus Angioma serpiginosum Hemosiderin hyperpigmentation Other metals Argyria Chrysiasis Arsenic poisoning Lead poisoning Titanium metallic discoloration Other Carotenosis Tar melanosis Dyschromia Dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria Dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria See also Skin color Skin whitening Tanning Sunless Tattoo removal Depigmentation This Genodermatoses article is a stub .