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A number sign (#) is used with this entry because pachyonychia congenita-4 (PC4) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the KRT6B gene (148042) on chromosome 12q13. Description Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with the main clinical features of hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful and highly debilitating plantar keratoderma, oral leukokeratosis, and a variety of epidermal cysts. Although the condition had previously been subdivided clinically into Jadassohn-Lewandowsky PC type 1 and Jackson-Lawler PC type 2, patients with PC were later found to have a mixed constellation of both types, leading to a classification of PC based on genotype (summary by Sybert, 2010; Eliason et al., 2012; McLean et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pachyonychia congenita, see 167200. Historical Classification of Pachyonychia Congenita Gorlin et al. (1976) suggested that 2 distinct syndromes are subsumed under the designation pachyonychia congenita.
Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a rare genodermatosis predominantly featuring painful palmoplantar keratoderma, thickened nails, cysts and whitish oral mucosa. Epidemiology The prevalence is not known but approximately 1000 patients have been registered to date worldwide. Clinical description PC presents clinically as a spectrum of conditions. PC onset is variable with most cases manifesting soon after birth, others becoming clinically apparent only in late childhood and rarely in adulthood. The first signs of the disease usually are thickened nails or neonatal teeth.
Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is a rare inherited condition that primarily affects the nails and skin. The fingernails and toenails may be thickened and abnormally shaped . Affected people can also develop painful calluses and blisters on the soles of their feet and less frequently on the palms of their hands ( palmoplantar keratoderma ). Additional features include white patches on the tongue and inside of the mouth (leukokeratosis); bumps around the elbows, knees, and waistline (follicular hyperkeratosis); and cysts of various types including steatocystoma. Features may vary among affected people depending on their specific mutation.
For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pachyonychia congenita, see 167200. Inheritance Chong-Hai and Rajagopalan (1977) suggested autosomal recessive inheritance of pachyonychia congenita in a 4-year-old Malaysian girl with first-cousin parents, although they recognized new dominant mutation as a possibility. See also Sivasundram et al. (1985). INHERITANCE - Autosomal recessive HEAD & NECK Mouth - No oral leukoplakia SKIN, NAILS, & HAIR Skin - Horny papules (face, leg, buttocks) - No palmoplantar hyperkeratosis - No hyperhidrosis Nails - Episodic inflammatory swelling of nail bed - Recurrent shedding of nails - Hard,thickened nails (pachyonychia) - Subungual hyperkeratosis MISCELLANEOUS - See also pachyonychia congenita, type 3 (PC1, 167200 ) ▲ Close
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because pachyonychia congenita-3 (PC3) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the keratin-6a gene (KRT6A; 148041) on chromosome 12q13. Description Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with the main clinical features of hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful and highly debilitating plantar keratoderma, oral leukokeratosis, and a variety of epidermal cysts. Although the condition had previously been subdivided clinically into Jadassohn-Lewandowsky PC type 1 and Jackson-Lawler PC type 2, patients with PC were later found to have a mixed constellation of both types, leading to a classification of PC based on genotype (summary by Sybert, 2010; Eliason et al., 2012; McLean et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pachyonychia congenita, see 167200. Historical Classification of Pachyonychia Congenita Gorlin et al. (1976) suggested that 2 distinct syndromes are subsumed under the designation pachyonychia congenita.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that pachyonychia congenita-2 (PC2) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the KRT17 gene (148069) on chromosome 17q21. Description Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with the main clinical features of hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful and highly debilitating plantar keratoderma, oral leukokeratosis, and a variety of epidermal cysts. Although the condition had previously been subdivided clinically into Jadassohn-Lewandowsky PC type 1 and Jackson-Lawler PC type 2, patients with PC were later found to have a mixed constellation of both types, leading to a classification of PC based on genotype (summary by Sybert, 2010; Eliason et al., 2012; McLean et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pachyonychia congenita, see 167200. Historical Classification of Pachyonychia Congenita Gorlin et al. (1976) suggested that 2 distinct syndromes are subsumed under the designation pachyonychia congenita.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because pachyonychia congenita-1 (PC1) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the keratin-16 gene (KRT16; 148067) on chromosome 17q21. Description Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with the main clinical features of hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful and highly debilitating plantar keratoderma, oral leukokeratosis, and a variety of epidermal cysts. Although the condition had previously been subdivided clinically into Jadassohn-Lewandowsky PC type 1 and Jackson-Lawler PC type 2, patients with PC were later found to have a mixed constellation of both types, leading to a classification of PC based on genotype (summary by Sybert, 2010; Eliason et al., 2012; McLean et al., 2011). Historical Classification of Pachyonychia Congenita Gorlin et al. (1976) suggested that 2 distinct syndromes are subsumed under the designation pachyonychia congenita. PC type 1, the Jadassohn-Lewandowsky type, shows oral leukokeratosis.
A study by Iwatsuki et al. detected Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive T-cells in the perivascular infiltration on biopsy in 28/29 patients tested. Antibody titers to EBV were measured in 14 of these patients and only five had abnormal antibody patterns consistent with chronic active EBV infection.  Treatment [ edit ] Antiviral treatment has been tried with some success in a small number of patients.  See also [ edit ] List of cutaneous conditions Epstein-Barr virus References [ edit ] ^ Bazin, E (1862). ... Feb, 42(2 Pt 1) (2): 208–13. doi : 10.1016/s0190-9622(00)90127-0 . PMID 10642674 . ^ James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology . Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0 . ^ Rezk SA, Zhao X, Weiss LM (September 2018).
A rare photodermatosis characterized by the development of pruritic or painful vesicles in a photodistributed pattern in response to sunlight exposure. The lesions heal with permanent varioliform scarring. Ocular involvement, deformities of ears and nose, or contractures of the fingers may occasionally be observed. Systemic signs and symptoms are absent. The condition typically occurs in childhood and regresses spontaneously in adolescence or young adulthood.
. ^ "Deaths in the district of Inveresk and Musselburgh in the County of Edinburgh" . Statutory Deaths 689/00 0032 . ScotlandsPeople . Retrieved 11 April 2015 . External links [ edit ] Classification D ICD-O : 8011/0, 8011/3 Wikimedia Commons has media related to Epithelioma .
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 254–256. ISBN 0-7817-3905-5 . ^ a b c d e f g h i Smith, Melanie N. (2006-05-10). ... Cambridge University Press . p. 77. ISBN 1-900151-51-0 . ^ Papadakis, Maxine A.; Stephen J. ... McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 60. ISBN 0-07-145892-1 . ^ a b Bosze, Peter; David M. ... Informa Health Care. p. 66. ISBN 963-00-7356-0 . ^ "Cervical Polyps" (PDF) .
Clin Dermatol . 19 (1): 69–71. doi : 10.1016/S0738-081X(00)00215-7 . PMID 11369491 . ^ "Drugs that call for extra caution. ... New York: Simon Schuster. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-684-87309-1 . ^ M.d. Kamath, Bob (30 May 2007). ... Kendall Hunt Publishing. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-7872-8701-6 . ^ Ashton CH (2002).
Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 1150. ISBN 0-7817-2655-7 . Retrieved 2008-06-16 . ^ a b c d e f Scalea TM (2005). ... Boca Raton: CRC. pp. 26–32. ISBN 978-0-8493-8138-6 . Retrieved 2008-07-06 . ^ a b Porth, Carol (2007). ... Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 838. ISBN 978-0-7817-7087-3 . Retrieved 2008-07-03 . ^ Pitkänen A, McIntosh TK (2006). ... Neurotrauma: New Insights Into Pathology and Treatment . Elsevier. pp. 13–19. ISBN 978-0-444-53017-2 . Retrieved 2008-06-10 . ^ a b Granacher RP (2007). ... Neuroscience . 101 (2): 289–95. doi : 10.1016/S0306-4522(00)00380-8 . PMID 11074152 . S2CID 20457228 . ^ Sauaia A, Moore FA, Moore EE, et al.
Characteristics [ edit ] Botellón usually begins around 11:00 p.m. and ends around 3:00 a.m. when many people move to a bar or club. ... Since botellón is usually a nighttime activity, Spain passed a law that prohibits stores to sell alcohol to the public after 10:00 p.m, hoping to persuade people to attend clubs or bars where alcohol must remain on site. [ citation needed ] However, the measure is a controversial one because people can still buy alcohol before the selling limit hour and consume it in public. ... One example of a macro-botellón was on 17 March 2006, "Half of Spain [met] on the net to organize a macro-botellón".  The macro-botellón was organized in cities around Spain, such as Madrid, Barcelona, Sevilla, Oviedo, Murcia, Vitoria, Málaga, Córdoba, Granada, and Jaén.  One of the purposes of the macro-botellón on 17 March 2006, near the Faro de Moncloa in Madrid, Spain, was to protest against the municipal restrictions on drinking alcohol in the streets. ... Alicante: El Mundo. 9 March 2010. ^ Reyes Rincón (28 November 2006). "Nace el 'botellódromo':El Ayuntamiento de Granada construye un espacio a las afueras de la ciudad para que 20.000 jóvenes puedan beber sin molestia" . ... CS1 maint: archived copy as title ( link ) ^ "Media España se cita en la Red para celebrar un macrobotellón el 17 de marzo" . 2006-03-07. ^ http://www.20minutos.es/noticia/97295/0/macrobotellones/ciudades/espana/ | Literally translated from Spanish ^ "El Ayuntamiento "no consentirá" el macrobotellón que se prepara en Moncloa" . 2006-03-07.
Clinical Features Lisch et al. (1992) described 5 family members and 3 unrelated patients (4 males, 4 females), aged 23 to 71 years, with bilateral or unilateral, gray, band-shaped, and feathery opacities that sometimes appeared in whorled patterns. Retroillumination showed that the opacities consisted of intraepithelial, densely crowded, clear microcysts. Light and electron microscopy disclosed diffuse vacuolization of the cytoplasm of epithelial cells in the affected area. Visual acuity was so reduced in 3 patients that abrasion of the corneal epithelium was performed. The corneal abnormalities recurred within months, with the same reduction in visual acuity as before.
Lisch epithelial corneal dystrophy (LECD) is a very rare form of superficial corneal dystrophy characterized by feather-shaped opacities and microcysts in the corneal epithelium arranged in a band-shaped and sometimes whorled pattern, occasionally with impaired vision. Epidemiology Exact prevalence of this form of corneal dystrophy is not known but very few cases have been reported to date. LECD has been documented in one German family and in rare sporadic cases in Germany and the USA. Clinical description Lesions generally develop in childhood. Epithelial opacities are slowly progressive and painless blurred vision sometimes occurs after 60 years of age. Etiology The exact cause is unknown but appears to be genetic. The gene related to Lisch epithelial corneal dystrophy has been mapped to the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp22.3).
In Dogger Bank itch, sensitivity is acquired after repeated handling of the sea chervils that become entangled in fishing nets. [ citation needed ] The specific toxin responsible for the rash was determined to be the sulfur -bearing salt (2-hydroxyethyl) dimethylsulfoxonium chloride.  This salt is also found in some sea sponges and has potent in vitro activity against leukemia cells.  Treatment [ edit ] A study of two cases in 2001 suggests that the rash responds to oral ciclosporin . ... The sea chervil, abundant in the area, frequently came up with the fishing nets and had to be thrown back into the water. ... Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology . Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6 . ^ Bonnevie, P. (1948). ... Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B . 128 (1): 27–30. doi : 10.1016/S1096-4959(00)00316-X . CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list ( link ) ^ a b Bowers PW, Julian CG., PW; Julian, CG (2001).
Needham Heights, MA, USA: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN 0-205-14164-1 . Das, J.P. (2002). A better look at intelligence. Current Directions in Psychology, 11, 28–32. Goldstein, Gerald; Beers, Susan, eds (2004). ... Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 445–476. ISBN 978-0-521-59648-0 . Lay summary (22 July 2013). ... Essentials of Psychological Testing . John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-41978-5 . Lay summary (10 October 2013). ... Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 20–38. ISBN 978-0-521-73911-5 . Lay summary (9 February 2012).
The Lancet . 156 (4011): 89–95. doi : 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)65681-7 . ^ Weisse, Martin E (31 December 2000). ... The Lancet . 357 (9252): 299–301. doi : 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)03623-0 . PMID 11214144 . S2CID 35896288 . ^ Powell, KR (January 1979). ... The Journal of Pediatrics . 78 (6): 958–67. doi : 10.1016/S0022-3476(71)80425-0 . PMID 4252715 . ^ Morens, David M; Katz, Alan R; Melish, Marian E (31 May 2001). ... The Lancet . 357 (9273): 2059. doi : 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)05151-5 . PMID 11441870 . S2CID 35925579 .
A rare staphylococcal toxemia caused by epidermolytic toxins of Staphylococcus aureus and characterized by the appearance of widespread erythematous patches, on which large blisters develop. Upon rupture of these blisters, the skin appears reddish and scalded. The lesions typically begin in the face and rapidly expand to other parts of the body. The disease may be complicated by pneumonia and sepsis. It most commonly affects newborns and infants.
With giant hemangiomas in small children, thrombocytopenia and red cell changes compatible with trauma ('microangiopathic hemolytic anemia') have been observed. The mechanism of the hematologic changes is obscure. No evidence of a simple genetic basis has been discovered. Propp and Scharfman (1966) reported a male infant with thrombocytopenia associated with a large hemangioma of the right arm and axilla. The patient had low platelet counts with a markedly diminished platelet survival time and an absence of platelet agglutinin or complement-fixing antibody. Radiochromate-tagged platelet studies suggested sequestration in the hemangioma, liver, and spleen.
Hemangioma thrombocytopenia syndrome is characterized by profound thrombocytopenia in association with two rare vascular tumors: kaposiform hemangioendotheliomas and tufted angiomas . The profound thrombocytopenia can cause life threatening bleeding and progress to a disseminated coagulopathy in patients with these tumors. The condition typically occurs in early infancy or childhood, although prenatal cases (diagnosed with the aid of ultrasonography), newborn presentations, and rare adult cases have been reported.
Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS), also known as hemangioma-thrombocytopenia syndrome, is a rare disorder characterized by profound thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and subsequent consumptive coagulopathy in association with vascular tumors, particularly kaposiform hemangioendothelioma or tufted angioma.
Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-138076-0 . ^ James W, Berger T, Elston D (2005). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology (10th ed.). Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0 . ^ Pardasani AG, Feldman SR, Clark AR (February 2000). ... Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology . 42 (5 Pt 2): 885–7. doi : 10.1016/s0190-9622(00)90263-9 . PMID 10767696 . ^ Mehlis S (2019).
Guttate psoriasis is a skin condition in which small, red, and scaly teardrop-shaped spots appear on the arms, legs, and middle of the body. It is a relatively uncommon form of psoriasis . The condition often develops very suddenly, and is usually triggered by an infection (e.g., strep throat, bacteria infection, upper respiratory infections or other viral infections). Other triggers include injury to the skin, including cuts, burns, and insect bites, certain malarial and heart medications, stress, sunburn, and excessive alcohol consumption. Treatment depends on the severity of the symptoms, ranging from at-home over the counter remedies to medicines that suppress the body's immune system to sunlight and phototherapy.
The chalky grayish-white particles within the tumor mass correspond to foci of cartilage on histology; the semi-translucent membrane covering the lens in some tumors corresponds to spreading neoplastic cells.   Tumor cells form a characteristic diktyomatous pattern, with folded cords and sheets resembling a fisherman's net.  In early development of the retina, the medullary epithelial cells acquire polarity, such that a basement membrane associated with the vitreous forms the internal limiting membrane on one side, while terminal bars form the outer limiting membrane on the other side. ... American Journal of Ophthalmology . 130 (3): 364–366. doi : 10.1016/S0002-9394(00)00542-0 . ^ a b c d e Vajaranant, Thasarat S.; Mafee, Mahmood F.; Kapur, Rashmi; Rapoport, Mark; Edward, Deepak P. ... American Journal of Ophthalmology . 133 (6): 841–843. doi : 10.1016/S0002-9394(02)01432-0 . ^ Janss, Anna J.; Yachnis, Anthony T.; Silber, Jeffrey H.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.
Medulloepithelioma of the central nervous system is a rare, primitive neuroectodermal tumor characterized by papillary, tubular and trabecular arrangements of neoplastic neuroepithelium, mimicking the embryonic neural tube, most commonly found in the periventricular region within the cerebral hemispheres, but has also been reported in brainstem and cerebellum. It usually presents in childhood with headache, nausea, vomiting, facial nerve paresis, and/or cerebellar ataxia, and typically has a progressive course, highly malignant behavior and poor prognosis. Hearing and visual loss have also been observed.
Medulloepithelioma Histopathology of medulloepithelioma showing characteristic neural tube like strands. Specialty Neurosurgery , oncology Medulloepithelioma is a rare, primitive, fast-growing brain tumour thought to stem from cells of the embryonic medullary cavity .  Tumours originating in the ciliary body of the eye are referred to as embryonal medulloepitheliomas,  or diktyomas .  A highly malignant undifferentiated primitive neuroepithelial tumour of children, medulloepithelioma may contain bone , cartilage , skeletal muscle , and tends to metastasize extracranially.  Contents 1 Signs and symptoms 2 Diagnosis 2.1 Classification 3 Treatment 4 Prognosis 5 Epidemiology 6 References 7 External links Signs and symptoms [ edit ] Medulloepithelioma have been reported to occur in the cerebral hemispheres , brainstem , cerebellum , and peripheral sites .     Due to rapid growth of the tumour, patients typically present with increased intracranial pressure , seizures , and focal neurologic signs .  Diagnosis [ edit ] Neuronal differentiation, ranging from neuroblasts to ganglion cells, is seen in some medulloepitheliomas. Imaging studies such as Computerized Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can aid diagnosis . Medulloepithelioma appears isodense or hypodense with variable heterogeneity and calcification on non-contrast CT scan, and enhances with contrast.  This radiographical finding is consistent with a primitive neuroectodermal tumour, especially in children.  Blood studies and imaging studies of the abdomen may be used to detect metastases.  Needle aspiration biopsy can be used to aid diagnosis.  Definitive diagnosis requires histopathological examination of surgically excised tumour tissues. Histologically, medulloepithelioma resemble a primitive neural tube and with neuronal, glial and mesenchymal elements.   Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes may also be observed.  Immunohistochemically , neural tube-like structures are vimentin positive in the majority of medulloepitheliomas.  Poorly differentiated medulloepitheliomas are vimentin negative.
Information concerning histiocytosis and clinicians located in European countries may be found in many languages at the web portal of Euro Histio Net (EHN). This is a project funded by the European Union, coordinated by Jean Donadieu, APHP , Paris, France. ... Archived from the original on 2007-09-28 . Retrieved 2007-05-07 . ^ James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology . Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0 . ^ Goldberg, J; Nezelof, C (1986), "Lymphohistiocytosis: a multi-factorial syndrome of macrophagic activation clinico-pathological study of 38 cases", Hematol Oncol , 4 (4): 275–289, PMID 3557322 . ^ Egan, Caoimhe; Jaffe, Elaine S. (2018). ... Springer Science & Business Media. p. 383. ISBN 978-0-387-73743-0 . External links [ edit ] Classification D ICD - 10 : C96.1 , D76.0 ICD - 9-CM : 202.3 , 277.89 MeSH : D015614 SNOMED CT : 60657004 External resources MedlinePlus : 000068 eMedicine : ped/1997 v t e Histiocytosis WHO-I/ Langerhans cell histiocytosis / X-type histiocytosis Letterer–Siwe disease Hand–Schüller–Christian disease Eosinophilic granuloma Congenital self-healing reticulohistiocytosis WHO-II/ non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis / Non-X histiocytosis Juvenile xanthogranuloma Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis Erdheim-Chester disease Niemann–Pick disease Sea-blue histiocyte Benign cephalic histiocytosis Generalized eruptive histiocytoma Xanthoma disseminatum Progressive nodular histiocytosis Papular xanthoma Hereditary progressive mucinous histiocytosis Reticulohistiocytosis ( Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis , Reticulohistiocytoma ) Indeterminate cell histiocytosis WHO-III/ malignant histiocytosis Histiocytic sarcoma Langerhans cell sarcoma Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma Ungrouped Rosai–Dorfman disease
The Lancet . 156 (4011): 89–95. doi : 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)65681-7 . ^ a b c d Weisse, ME (31 December 2000). ... The Lancet . 357 (9252): 299–301. doi : 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)03623-0 . PMID 11214144 . S2CID 35896288 . ^ Dukes-Filatov disease at Who Named It?
Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), also called sleeping sickness, is a vector-borne parasitic disease caused by a protozoa of the Trypanosoma genus transmitted by the bite of a tsetse fly (genus Glossina ), that is found under its chronic form (average duration of 3 years) in western and central Africa (in case of the T. brucei gambiense sub-species), and under its acute form (lasting from few weeks to 6 months) in eastern and southern Africa (in case of the T. brucei rhodesiense sub-species). HAT comprises an initial hemo-lymphatic stage characterized by fever, weakness, musculoskeletal pain, anemia, and lymphadenopathy, along with dermatologic, cardiac and endocrine complications or hepatosplenomegaly, followed by a meningo-encephalitic stage characterized by neurologic involvement (sleep disturbances, psychiatric disorders, seizures) that progresses, in the absence of treatment, towards a fatal meningoencephalitis.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome type 1 (RIEG1) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the homeobox transcription factor gene PITX2 (601542) on chromosome 4q25. Description Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of morphogenesis that results in abnormal development of the anterior segment of the eye, and results in blindness from glaucoma in approximately 50% of affected individuals (Fitch and Kaback, 1978). Systemic anomalies are associated, including dental hypoplasia, failure of involution of periumbilical skin, and maxillary hypoplasia (Alkemade, 1969). Genetic Heterogeneity of Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome Linkage studies indicate that a second type of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome maps to chromosome 13q14 (RIEG2; 601499). A third form of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (RIEG3; 602482) is caused by mutation in the FOXC1 gene (601090) on chromosome 6p25.
Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS) is a generic term used to designate overlapping genetic disorders, in which the major physical condition is anterior segment dysgenesis of the eye. Patients with ARS may also present with multiple variable congenital anomalies. Epidemiology The syndrome has an estimated prevalence of 1/200,000. Clinical description The clinical manifestations of ARS are highly variable. Features can be divided into ocular and non-ocular findings. Ocular abnormalities mainly affect the iris: hypoplasia, corectopia or hole formation in the iris mimicking polycoria; cornea: prominent and anteriorly displaced Schwalbe's line (posterior embryotoxon); and the chamber angle: iris strands bridging the iridocorneal angle to the trabecular meshwork. Eye dysgenesis in ARS may cause increased ocular pressure (IOP) leading to glaucoma.
Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is a group of disorders that mainly affects the development of the eye. Common eye symptoms include cornea defects and iris defects. People with this syndrome may have an off-center pupil (corectopia) or extra holes in the eyes that can look like multiple pupils (polycoria). About 50% of people with this syndrome develop glaucoma, a condition that increases pressure inside of the eye, and may cause vision loss or blindness. Click here to view a diagram of the eye. Even though Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is primarily an eye disorder, this syndrome can affect other parts of the body. Most people with this syndrome have distinctive facial features and many have issues with their teeth, including unusually small teeth (microdontia) or fewer than normal teeth (oligodontia).
Description Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is a disorder of morphogenesis that results in abnormal development of the anterior segment of the eye, which results in blindness from glaucoma in approximately 50% of affected individuals. Systemic abnormalities, including cardiac and dental anomalies, are associated. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity and nomenclature of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, see RIEG1 (180500). Mapping Deletion of 13q14 was described in 2 cases of Rieger syndrome (Akazawa et al., 1981; Stathacopoulos et al., 1987). Phillips et al. (1996) performed linkage analysis of a large 4-generation family and demonstrated that Rieger syndrome was not linked to 4q25 but to markers on 13q14.