Leydig cell hypoplasia (LCH) is a disorder that impairs male sexual development . It causes incomplete development of Leydig cells, which are cells in the testicles (testes) that secrete male sex hormones (androgens). These hormones are needed for normal male sexual development as reproductive organs are forming (before birth), as well as during puberty. A genetic male with LCH has typical male chromosomes ( 46, XY ), but due to low androgen levels, may have a range of genital differences. In a genetic male with LCH, the external genitalia may not look clearly male or female ( ambiguous genitalia ).
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because Leydig cell hypoplasia (LCH) types I and II, as well as luteinizing hormone resistance in females, are caused by inactivating mutations in the luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor gene (LHCGR; 152790). Description Leydig cell hypoplasia is an autosomal recessive disorder in which loss of function of the LHCGR gene in the male prevents normal sexual development. Two types of LCH have been defined (Toledo, 1992). Type I, a severe form caused by complete inactivation of LHCGR, is characterized by complete 46,XY male pseudohermaphroditism, low testosterone and high LH levels, total lack of responsiveness to LH/CG challenge, lack of breast development, and absent development of secondary male sex characteristics. Type II, a milder form caused by partial inactivation of the gene, displays a broader range of phenotypic expression ranging from micropenis to severe hypospadias. Females with inactivating mutations in the LHCGR gene display a mild phenotype characterized by defective follicular development and ovulation, amenorrhea, and infertility (review by Themmen and Huhtaniemi, 2000).
A rare, 46,XY disorder of sex development due to impaired androgen production characterized by impaired normal male sexual development. The severity of the disorder varies and can manifest in its severe form with complete 46,XY male pseudohermaphroditism, including low testosterone and high luteinizing hormone levels, absent development of secondary male sex characteristics and lack of breast development. Patients with the milder form can have a wider range of phenotypes, ranging from micropenis to severe hypospadias.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) with progressive sensorineural deafness is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the ATP6V1B1 (ATP6B1) gene (192132) on chromosome 2p13. Clinical Features Konigsmark (1966) observed a 17-year-old girl who had calculi removed from both kidneys at age 12. Studies at that time showed renal tubular acidosis and bilateral neural deafness. One brother, aged 20, had similar renal disease and progressive nerve deafness. The parents, who were unrelated, and another brother were normal. Nance et al. (1970) observed sibs with this combination of abnormalities.
An inherited form of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) characterized by hypokalemic hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Deafness often occurs either early or later on in life but may be absent or never be diagnosed. Epidemiology The prevalence is unknown. Clinical description Disease onset usually occurs in infancy or early childhood with polyuria, polydipsia, weakness and fatigue. Failure to thrive, rickets and stunting of growth (resulting from a loss of calcium salts from the bones) are common manifestations of the disease and can lead to progressive bone disease in adults. Some patients can be asymptomatic. Deafness may occur very early or later in life.
The other concerned treating very young infants with autism with or without TMLHE deficiency with carnitine or gamma-butyrobetaine (gamma-BB). In 2 brothers with AUTSX6, Nava et al. (2012) identified a hemizygous truncating mutation in the TMLHE gene (R77X; 300777.0002).
The application of insecticides and/or insect repellents ) to strategic surfaces such as clothing, skin, buildings, insect habitats, and bed nets . The use of a mosquito net over a bed (also known as a "bed net") to reduce nighttime transmission, since certain species of tropical mosquitoes feed mainly at night.
They are being detected at a greatly increased rate as CT scans become more powerful and common, and discussion continues as how best to assess and treat them, given that many are benign.  Neuroendocrine [ edit ] Main article: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor The small minority of tumors that arise elsewhere in the pancreas are mainly pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs).  Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a diverse group of benign or malignant tumors that arise from the body's neuroendocrine cells , which are responsible for integrating the nervous and endocrine systems. NETs can start in most organs of the body, including the pancreas, where the various malignant types are all considered to be rare . ... Typical sites for metastatic spread (stage IV disease) are the liver, peritoneal cavity and lungs , all of which occur in 50% or more of fully advanced cases.  PanNETs [ edit ] The 2010 WHO classification of tumors of the digestive system grades all the pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) into three categories, based on their degree of cellular differentiation (from "NET G1" through to the poorly differentiated "NET G3").  The U.S.
Overview Pancreatic cancer begins in the tissues of your pancreas — an organ in your abdomen that lies behind the lower part of your stomach. Your pancreas releases enzymes that aid digestion and produces hormones that help manage your blood sugar. Several types of growths can occur in the pancreas, including cancerous and noncancerous tumors. The most common type of cancer that forms in the pancreas begins in the cells that line the ducts that carry digestive enzymes out of the pancreas (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma). Pancreatic cancer is seldom detected at its early stages when it's most curable.
This disorder of the blood vessels causes a reddish or purplish net-like pattern on the skin. In addition, people with Adams-Oliver syndrome can develop high blood pressure in the blood vessels between the heart and the lungs (pulmonary hypertension), which can be life-threatening.
Information concerning histiocytosis and clinicians located in European countries may be found in many languages at the web portal of Euro Histio Net (EHN). This is a project funded by the European Union, coordinated by Jean Donadieu, APHP , Paris, France.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy-2 (CHN2) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the MPZ gene (159440) on chromosome 1q23. Description Congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy-2 is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by early-onset hypotonia, severely delayed motor development, muscle weakness with areflexia, and severely decreased nerve conduction velocities (NCV) resulting from improper myelination of axons. The severity is variable: some patients may present at birth with contractures and respiratory insufficiency, whereas others may achieve walking (summary by Warner et al., 1996). CHN shows significant phenotypic overlap with Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS; 145900), which is also a neuropathy with early onset. Some classify the disorders differently, noting that CHN is characterized by hypo- or amyelination resulting from a congenital defect in myelin formation, whereas DSS has features of continuous myelin breakdown, with demyelination and remyelination (summary by Smit et al., 2008).
Hypertrophic neuropathy of Dejerine-Sottas (Dejerine-Sottas syndrome) is a term sometimes used to describe a severe, early childhood form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (sometimes called type 3) that is characterized by sensory loss with ataxia in the limbs furthest from the body and pes cavus with progression towards the limbs closest to the body. Depending on the specific gene that is altered, this severe, early onset form of the disorder may also be classified as type 1 or type 4. Dejerine-Sottas syndrome has been associated with mutations in the MPZ , PMP22 , EGR2 , and PRX genes. Autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance have been described.
A clinical entity that represents a severe phenotype of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease characterized by onset occurring in infancy, severe motor weakness, delayed motor development, extremely slow nerve conduction (< 10-12 m/s), areflexia and foot deformity. Mutations in the genes PMP22 (17p12), MPZ (1q22), EGR2 (10q21.1) and PRX (19q13.2) have been implicated.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of the demonstration that Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS) can be caused by mutations in the MPZ gene (159440), the PMP22 gene (601097), the PRX gene (605725), and the EGR2 (129010) gene. There is also evidence that mutations in the GJB1 gene (304040) may contribute to the phenotype. See also severe congenital hypomyelination (605253), which shows phenotypic overlap with DSS. Description Dejerine-Sottas neuropathy is a demyelinating peripheral neuropathy with onset in infancy. It can show autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance. Affected individuals have delayed motor development due to severe distal motor and sensory impairment, resulting in difficulties in gait.
In 1959, Anglo-Egyptian author Bothaina Abd el-Hamid Mohamed used Southey's concept in his book Oikophobia: or, A literary craze for education through travel .  Political usage [ edit ] Part of a series on Discrimination General forms Age Class ( Caste ) Physical Disability Education Economic Employment Genetics Hair texture Height Housing Language Looks Race / Ethnicity / Nationality Rank Religion Sanity Sex Sexual orientation Size Skin color Specific forms Social Acephobia Adultism Amatonormativity Anti-albinism Anti-autism Anti-homelessness Anti-intellectualism Anti-intersex Anti-left handedness Anti-Masonry Antisemitism (Judeophobia) Aporophobia Audism Biphobia Clannism Cronyism Drug use Elitism Ephebiphobia Fatism Gerontophobia Heteronormativity Heterosexism HIV/AIDS stigma Homophobia Leprosy stigma Lesbophobia Misandry Misogyny Nepotism Pedophobia Perpetual foreigner Pregnancy Reverse Sectarianism Supremacism Black White Transphobia Non-binary Transmisogyny Vegaphobia Xenophobia Religious Ahmadiyya Atheism Baháʼí Faith Buddhism Catholicism Christianity post–Cold War era Druze Falun Gong Hinduism Persecution Islam Persecution Jehovah's Witnesses Judaism Persecution LDS or Mormon Neopaganism Eastern Orthodox Oriental Orthodox Copts Protestantism Rastafarianism Shi'ism Sufism Sunnism Zoroastrianism Ethnic/national African Albanian American Arab Armenian Australian Austrian Azerbaijani British Canadian Catalan Chechen Chilean Chinese Croat Dutch English Estonian European Filipino Finnish French Georgian German Greek Haitian Hazara Hispanic Hungarian Igbo Indian Indonesian Iranian Irish Israeli Italian Japanese Jewish Khmer Korean Kurdish Malay Manchu Mexican Middle Eastern Mongolian Montenegrin Pakistani Pashtun Polish Portuguese Quebec Romani Romanian Russian Scottish Serb Slavic Somali Soviet Tatar Thai Tibetan Turkish Ukrainian Venezuelan Vietnamese Western Manifestations Blood libel Bullying Compulsory sterilization Counter-jihad Cultural genocide Defamation Democide Disability hate crime Dog-whistle politics Eliminationism Ethnic cleansing Ethnic conflict Ethnic hatred Ethnic joke Ethnocide Forced conversion Freak show Gay bashing Gendercide Genital modification and mutilation Genocide examples Glass ceiling Hate crime Hate group Hate speech online Homeless dumping Indian rolling Lavender scare LGBT hate crimes Lynching Mortgage Murder music Occupational segregation Persecution Pogrom Purge Red Scare Religious persecution Religious terrorism Religious violence Religious war Scapegoating Segregation academy Sex-selective abortion Slavery Slut-shaming Trans bashing Victimisation Violence against women White flight White power music Wife selling Witch-hunt Policies Age of candidacy Blood purity Blood quantum Crime of apartheid Disabilities Catholic Jewish Ethnocracy Ethnopluralism Gender pay gap Gender roles Gerontocracy Gerrymandering Ghetto benches Internment Jewish quota Jim Crow laws Law for Protection of the Nation McCarthyism MSM blood donation restrictions Nonpersons Numerus clausus (as religious or racial quota) Nuremberg Laws One-drop rule Racial quota Racial steering Redlining Same-sex marriage (laws and issues prohibiting) Segregation age racial religious sexual Sodomy law State atheism State religion Ugly law Voter suppression Countermeasures Affirmative action Anti-discrimination law Cultural assimilation Cultural pluralism Diversity training Empowerment Feminism Fighting Discrimination Hate speech laws by country Human rights Intersex rights LGBT rights Masculism Multiculturalism Nonviolence Racial integration Reappropriation Self-determination Social integration Toleration Related topics Allophilia Anti-cultural, anti-national, and anti-ethnic terms Bias Christian privilege Civil liberties Cultural assimilation Dehumanization Diversity Ethnic penalty Eugenics Internalized oppression Intersectionality Male privilege Masculism Medical model of disability autism Multiculturalism Net bias Neurodiversity Oikophobia Oppression Police brutality Political correctness Polyculturalism Power distance Prejudice Prisoner abuse Racial bias in criminal news Racism by country Religious intolerance Second-generation gender bias Snobbery Social exclusion Social model of disability Social stigma Stereotype threat The talk White privilege v t e In his 2004 book England and the Need for Nations , British conservative philosopher Roger Scruton adapted the word to mean "the repudiation of inheritance and home."  He argues that it is "a stage through which the adolescent mind normally passes,"  but that it is a feature of some, typically leftist , political impulses and ideologies that espouse xenophilia , i.e. preference for foreign cultures.  Scruton uses the term as the antithesis of xenophobia .  In his book, Roger Scruton: Philosopher on Dover Beach , Mark Dooley describes oikophobia as centered within the Western academic establishment on "both the common culture of the West , and the old educational curriculum that sought to transmit its humane values." ... Retrieved 26 June 2016 . v t e Discrimination General forms Age Caste Class Disability Education Economic Employment Genetic Hair texture Height Housing Language Looks Race / Ethnicity / Nationality Rank Sanity Sex Sexual orientation Size Skin color Social Acephobia Adultism Amatonormativity Anti-albinism Anti-autism Anti-homelessness Anti-intellectualism Anti-intersex Anti-left handedness Anti-Masonry Antisemitism (Judeophobia) Aporophobia Audism Biphobia Clannism Cronyism Drug use Elitism Ephebiphobia Fatism Gerontophobia Heteronormativity Heterosexism HIV/AIDS stigma Homophobia Leprosy stigma Lesbophobia Misandry Misogyny Nepotism Pedophobia Perpetual foreigner Pregnancy Reverse Sectarianism Supremacism Black White Transphobia Non-binary Transmisogyny Vegaphobia Xenophobia Religious Ahmadiyya Atheism Baháʼí Faith Buddhism Catholicism Christianity post–Cold War era Falun Gong Hinduism Persecution Islam Persecution Jehovah's Witnesses Judaism Persecution LDS or Mormon Neopaganism Eastern Orthodox Oriental Orthodox Protestantism Rastafarianism Shi'ism Sufism Zoroastrianism Ethnic/National African Albanian American Arab Armenian Australian Austrian British Canadian Catalan Chilean Chinese Croat Dutch English Estonian European Filipino Finnish French Georgian German Greek Haitian Hazara Hindu Hispanic Hungarian Igbo Indian Indonesian Iranian Irish Israeli Italian Japanese Jewish Khmer Korean Kurdish Malay Manchu Mexican Middle Eastern Mongolian Pakistani Pashtun Polish Portuguese Quebec Romani Romanian Russian Scottish Serb Slavic Somali Soviet Tatar Thai Turkish Ukrainian Venezuelan Vietnamese Western Manifestations Blood libel Bullying Compulsory sterilization Counter-jihad Cultural genocide Defamation Democide Disability hate crime Dog-whistle politics Eliminationism Enemy of the people Ethnic cleansing Ethnic conflict Ethnic hatred Ethnic joke Ethnocide Forced conversion Freak show Gay bashing Gendercide Genital modification and mutilation Genocide examples Glass ceiling Hate crime Hate group Hate speech Homeless dumping Indian rolling Lavender scare LGBT hate crimes Lynching Mortgage Murder music Native American sports mascots Occupational segregation Persecution Pogrom Purge Red Scare Religious persecution Religious terrorism Religious violence Religious war Scapegoating Segregation academy Sex-selective abortion Slavery Slut-shaming Trans bashing Victimisation Violence against women White flight White power music Wife selling Witch-hunt Discriminatory policies Age of candidacy Blood purity Blood quantum Crime of apartheid Disabilities Catholic Jewish Ethnocracy Ethnopluralism Gender pay gap Gender roles Gerontocracy Gerrymandering Ghetto benches Internment Jewish quota Jim Crow laws Law for Protection of the Nation McCarthyism MSM blood donation restrictions Nonpersons Numerus clausus (as religious or racial quota) Nuremberg Laws One-drop rule Racial quota Racial steering Redlining Same-sex marriage (laws and issues prohibiting) Segregation age racial religious sexual Sodomy law State atheism State religion Ugly law Voter suppression Countermeasures Affirmative action Anti-discrimination law Cultural assimilation Cultural pluralism Diversity training Empowerment Feminism Fighting Discrimination Hate speech laws by country Human rights Intersex rights LGBT rights Masculism Multiculturalism Nonviolence Racial integration Reappropriation Self-determination Social integration Toleration Related topics Allophilia Anti-cultural, anti-national, and anti-ethnic terms Bias Christian privilege Civil liberties Cultural assimilation Dehumanization Diversity Ethnic penalty Eugenics Internalized oppression Intersectionality Male privilege Masculism Medical model of disability autism Multiculturalism Net bias Neurodiversity Oikophobia Oppression Police brutality Political correctness Polyculturalism Power distance Prejudice Prisoner abuse Racial bias in criminal news Racism by country Religious intolerance Second-generation gender bias Snobbery Social exclusion Social model of disability Social stigma Stereotype threat The talk White privilege Category
Karmous-Benailly et al. (2005) concluded that the association of Dandy-Walker malformation, cystic kidneys, and hepatic fibrosis without bile duct proliferation, sometimes described as the 'Meckel-like' syndrome, belongs to the clinical spectrum of Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS; 209900). Bergmann et al. (2008) reported 2 Turkish sibs, 1 of whom died at age 23 weeks' gestation and the other in the perinatal period, with enlarged multicystic dysplastic kidneys, oligohydramnios, and hepatic ductal plate malformation.
NPHP3-related Meckel-like syndrome is a rare, genetic, syndromic renal malformation characterized by cystic renal dysplasia with or without prenatal oligohydramnios, central nervous system abnormalities (commonly Dandy-Walker malformation), congenital hepatic fibrosis, and absence of polydactyly.
If you're staying in tented camps or in hotels, use bed nets and mosquito coils. Guard against rodents If you live where there are outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fevers, take steps to keep rodents out of your home: Keep pet food covered and stored in rodent-proof containers.
Viral hemorrhagic fever is a group of recently discovered contagious viral infections characterized by severe, multiple, and often fatal hemorrhages. African fevers include Lassa fever discovered in 1969, Marburg's disease that first occurred in 1967, and Ebola fever that appeared in 1976. Other viruses may also cause hemorrhagic fevers (for example, arbovirus fever). Clinical description Regarding Lassa fever, after a 7-day incubation period, fever and ulcerating hemorrhagic pharyngitis occur, followed by pleuropneumonia. The disease then progresses to either spontaneous cure or to profuse digestive or pulmonary bleeding that leads to death in 35 to 70% of cases.
"VHFS" redirects here. For the former military installation in Virginia, see Vint Hill Farms Station . This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources . Please review the contents of the article and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed . Find sources: "Viral hemorrhagic fever" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR ( July 2020 ) Type of illnesses Viral hemorrhagic fever Other names viral haemorrhagic fever Two nurses standing near Mayinga N'Seka , a nurse with Ebola virus disease in the 1976 outbreak in Zaire . N'Seka died a few days later due to severe internal hemorrhage . Specialty Infectious disease Viral hemorrhagic fevers ( VHFs ) are a diverse group of animal and human illnesses in which fever and hemorrhage are caused by a viral infection .
Symptoms Signs and symptoms of calciphylaxis include: Large purple net-like patterns on skin Deep, very painful lumps that ulcerate creating open sores with black-brown crust that fails to heal — typically in skin areas with high fat content, such as the stomach and thigh, although they can occur anywhere Infections from wounds that don't heal Causes The exact cause of calciphylaxis is unknown, but recent studies have revealed that most people with the condition have abnormalities in blood-clotting factors.
An Orphanet summary for this disease is currently under development. However, other data related to the disease are accessible from the Additional Information menu located on the right side of this page.
This article needs additional citations for verification . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: "Calciphylaxis" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR ( April 2014 ) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) Calciphylaxis Calciphylaxis on the abdomen of a patient with end stage kidney disease. Markings are in cm. Specialty Nephrology Prognosis 1- and 5-year survival rates are estimated to be 45% and 35%, respectively Calciphylaxis , also known as calcific uremic arteriolopathy ( CUA ) or “Grey Scale”, is a rare painful syndrome of calcification of the small blood vessels located within the fatty tissue and deeper layers of the skin , blood clots , and the death of skin cells due to too little blood flow .  It is seen mostly in people with end-stage kidney disease but can occur in the earlier stages of chronic kidney disease and rarely in people with normally functioning kidneys .  It results in chronic non-healing wounds and is usually fatal. Calciphylaxis is a rare but serious disease, believed to affect 1-4% of all dialysis patients.  Calciphylaxis is one type of extraskeletal calcification . Similar extraskeletal calcifications are observed in some people with high levels of calcium in the blood , including people with milk-alkali syndrome , sarcoidosis , primary hyperparathyroidism , and hypervitaminosis D .
Calciphylaxis is a disease in which blood vessels (veins and arteries) become blocked by a build-up of calcium in the walls of the vessels, preventing blood from flowing to the skin or internal organs. The lack of blood flow ( ischemia ) damages healthy tissue and causes it to die ( necrosis ). The most obvious and frequent symptom of calciphylaxis is damage to the skin, as ulcers can develop and become infected easily. Calciphylaxis can also affect fat tissue, internal organs, and skeletal muscle , causing infections, pain, and organ failure. These symptoms are often irreversible, and many individuals with calciphylaxis may not survive more than a few months after they are diagnosed due to infection that spreads throughout the body ( sepsis ), or organ failure.
The disease has also been reported affecting the commercial salmon fisheries of the United States, Australia, New Zealand, France, Spain, Ireland and Chile.  It was first diagnosed in the summer of 1984/1985 in populations of Atlantic salmon off the east coast of Tasmania and was found to be caused by N. perurans n.sp.  Contents 1 Clinical signs and diagnosis 2 Treatment and control 3 Notes 4 References Clinical signs and diagnosis [ edit ] Symptoms typically begin to appear two months after the fish are transferred from freshwater hatcheries to open net sea cages.  Symptoms include mucus build-up on the gills of infected fish and hyper-plastic lesions, causing white spots and eventual deterioration of the gill tissue.
Prevention [ edit ] Prevention of sandfly bites, and control of sandflies and their breeding grounds with insecticides are the principal methods for prevention. Mosquito nets may not be sufficient to prevent sandfly bites.
Graves disease is a condition that affects the function of the thyroid , which is a butterfly-shaped gland in the lower neck. The thyroid makes hormones that help regulate a wide variety of critical body functions. For example, thyroid hormones influence growth and development, body temperature, heart rate, menstrual cycles, and weight. In people with Graves disease, the thyroid is overactive and makes more hormones than the body needs. The condition usually appears in mid-adulthood, although it may occur at any age.
Specialty Infectious disease Symptoms None, severe swelling of the arms, legs, breasts, or genitals  Causes Filarial worms spread by mosquitos  Diagnostic method Microscopic examination of blood  Prevention Bed nets , mass deworming  Medication Albendazole with ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine  Frequency 38.5 million (2015)  Lymphatic filariasis is a human disease caused by parasitic worms known as filarial worms .   Most cases of the disease have no symptoms .  Some people, however, develop a syndrome called elephantiasis , which is marked by severe swelling in the arms, legs, breasts , or genitals .   The skin may become thicker as well, and the condition may become painful.  The changes to the body have the potential to harm the person's social and economic situation.  The worms are spread by the bites of infected mosquitoes .  Three types of worms are known to cause the disease: Wuchereria bancrofti , Brugia malayi , and Brugia timori , with Wuchereria bancrofti being the most common.  These worms damage the lymphatic system .  The disease is diagnosed by microscopic examination of blood collected during the night.  The blood is typically examined as a smear after being stained with Giemsa stain .  Testing the blood for antibodies against the disease may also permit diagnosis.  Other roundworms from the same family are responsible for river blindness .  Prevention can be achieved by treating entire groups in which the disease exists, known as mass deworming .  This is done every year for about six years, in an effort to rid a population of the disease entirely.  Medications used include antiparasitics such as albendazole with ivermectin , or albendazole with diethylcarbamazine .  The medications do not kill the adult worms but prevent further spread of the disease until the worms die on their own.  Efforts to prevent mosquito bites are also recommended, including reducing the number of mosquitoes and promoting the use of bed nets .  In 2015 about 38.5 million people were infected.  About 950 million people are at risk of the disease in 54 countries.  It is most common in tropical Africa and Asia.  Lymphatic filariasis is classified as a neglected tropical disease and one of the four main worm infections .  The impact of the disease results in economic losses of billions of dollars a year.  Contents 1 Signs and symptoms 2 Causes 3 Diagnosis 4 Prevention 5 Treatment 5.1 Anthelmintic 5.2 Antibiotics 5.3 Vaccine 5.4 Supportive treatments 6 Epidemiology 7 History 8 Research directions 9 References 10 External links Signs and symptoms [ edit ] The most spectacular symptom of lymphatic filariasis is elephantiasis , a stage 3 lymphedema with thickening of the skin and underlying tissues. ... Avoiding mosquito bites, such as by using insecticide -treated mosquito bed nets , also reduces the transmission of lymphatic filariasis.   The Carter Center 's International Task Force for Disease Eradication declared lymphatic filariasis one of six potentially eradicable diseases.  According to medical experts, the worldwide effort to eliminate lymphatic filariasis is on track to potentially succeed by 2020.  For similar-looking but causally unrelated podoconiosis , international awareness of the disease will have to increase before elimination is possible.
Lymphatic filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by microscopic, thread-like worms that only live in the human lymph system , which maintains the body's fluid balance and fights infections. It is spread from person to person by mosquitoes. Most infected people are asymptomatic and never develop clinical symptoms. A small percentage of people develop lymphedema , which may affect the legs, arms, breasts, and genitalia; bacterial infections that cause hardening and thickening of the skin, called elephantiasis; hydrocele (swelling of the scrotum) in men; and pulmonary tropical eosinophilia syndrome . Treatment may include a yearly dose of medicine, called diethylcarbamazine (DEC); while this drug does not kill all of the adult worms, it prevents infected people from giving the disease to someone else.
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a severe form of filariasis (see this term), caused by the parasitic worms Wuchereria bancrofti , Brugia malayi and Brugia timori , and the most common cause of acquired lymphedema worldwide. LF is endemic to tropical and subtropical regions. The vast majority of infected patients are asymptomatic but it can also cause a variety of clinical manifestations, including limb lymphedema, genital anomalies (hydrocele, chylocele), elephantiasis in later stages of the disease (frequently in the lower extremities), and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (nocturnal paroxysmal cough and wheezing, weight loss, low-grade fever, adenopathy, and pronounced blood eosinophilia). Renal involvement (hematuria, proteinuria, nephritic syndrome, glomerulonephritis), and mono-arthritis of the knee or ankle joint have also been reported.
You can help by adding to it . ( December 2017 ) References [ edit ] ^ Domenice S, Latronico AC, Brito VN, Arnhold IJ, Kok F, Mendonca BB (September 2001). "Adrenocorticotropin-dependent precocious puberty of testicular origin in a boy with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita due to a novel mutation in the DAX1 gene" .
X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita is a disorder that mainly affects males. It involves many hormone-producing (endocrine) tissues in the body, particularly a pair of small glands on top of each kidney called the adrenal glands. These glands produce a variety of hormones that regulate many essential functions in the body. One of the main signs of this disorder is adrenal insufficiency, which occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough hormones. Adrenal insufficiency typically begins in infancy or childhood and can cause vomiting, difficulty with feeding, dehydration, extremely low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), and shock.