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Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), also called sleeping sickness, is a vector-borne parasitic disease caused by a protozoa of the Trypanosoma genus transmitted by the bite of a tsetse fly (genus Glossina ), that is found under its chronic form (average duration of 3 years) in western and central Africa (in case of the T. brucei gambiense sub-species), and under its acute form (lasting from few weeks to 6 months) in eastern and southern Africa (in case of the T. brucei rhodesiense sub-species). HAT comprises an initial hemo-lymphatic stage characterized by fever, weakness, musculoskeletal pain, anemia, and lymphadenopathy, along with dermatologic, cardiac and endocrine complications or hepatosplenomegaly, followed by a meningo-encephalitic stage characterized by neurologic involvement (sleep disturbances, psychiatric disorders, seizures) that progresses, in the absence of treatment, towards a fatal meningoencephalitis.
Jaypee Brothers Publishers. 2007. pp. 347–. ISBN 978-81-8061-996-0 . ^ Leonard J. Deftos (1 January 1998). ... Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 73–. ISBN 978-0-7591-2332-8 . ^ Vasan; R.S. (1 January 1998). ... Biochemistry and Function of Sterols . CRC Press. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-0-8493-7674-0 . ^ Michael Crocetti; Michael A. ... Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 564–. ISBN 978-0-7817-3770-8 . ^ W. Steven Pray (2006). ... Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 1281–. ISBN 978-0-323-08678-3 . ^ Guy I. Benrubi (28 March 2012).
Information concerning histiocytosis and clinicians located in European countries may be found in many languages at the web portal of Euro Histio Net (EHN). This is a project funded by the European Union, coordinated by Jean Donadieu, APHP , Paris, France. ... Archived from the original on 2007-09-28 . Retrieved 2007-05-07 . ^ James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology . Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0 . ^ Goldberg, J; Nezelof, C (1986), "Lymphohistiocytosis: a multi-factorial syndrome of macrophagic activation clinico-pathological study of 38 cases", Hematol Oncol , 4 (4): 275–289, PMID 3557322 . ^ Egan, Caoimhe; Jaffe, Elaine S. (2018). ... Springer Science & Business Media. p. 383. ISBN 978-0-387-73743-0 . External links [ edit ] Classification D ICD - 10 : C96.1 , D76.0 ICD - 9-CM : 202.3 , 277.89 MeSH : D015614 SNOMED CT : 60657004 External resources MedlinePlus : 000068 eMedicine : ped/1997 v t e Histiocytosis WHO-I/ Langerhans cell histiocytosis / X-type histiocytosis Letterer–Siwe disease Hand–Schüller–Christian disease Eosinophilic granuloma Congenital self-healing reticulohistiocytosis WHO-II/ non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis / Non-X histiocytosis Juvenile xanthogranuloma Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis Erdheim-Chester disease Niemann–Pick disease Sea-blue histiocyte Benign cephalic histiocytosis Generalized eruptive histiocytoma Xanthoma disseminatum Progressive nodular histiocytosis Papular xanthoma Hereditary progressive mucinous histiocytosis Reticulohistiocytosis ( Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis , Reticulohistiocytoma ) Indeterminate cell histiocytosis WHO-III/ malignant histiocytosis Histiocytic sarcoma Langerhans cell sarcoma Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma Ungrouped Rosai–Dorfman disease
Glycogen storage disease type 0 (also known as GSD 0) is a condition caused by the body's inability to form a complex sugar called glycogen, which is a major source of stored energy in the body. GSD 0 has two types: in muscle GSD 0, glycogen formation in the muscles is impaired, and in liver GSD 0, glycogen formation in the liver is impaired. The signs and symptoms of muscle GSD 0 typically begin in early childhood. ... Because some people with muscle GSD 0 die from sudden cardiac arrest early in life before a diagnosis is made and many with liver GSD 0 have mild signs and symptoms, it is thought that GSD 0 may be underdiagnosed. Causes Mutations in the GYS1 gene cause muscle GSD 0, and mutations in the GYS2 gene cause liver GSD 0.
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that liver glycogen storage disease-0 (GSD0A) is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the GYS2 gene (138571), which encodes glycogen synthase-2, on chromosome 12p12. ... Mapping Orho et al. (1998) established linkage of glycogen storage disease 0 to intragenic and flanking polymorphic markers of the GYS2 gene on chromosome 12p12.2. Molecular Genetics In affected members of 5 families with liver glycogen storage disease 0, Orho et al. (1998) identified homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the GYS2 gene (138571.0001-138571.0008) Inheritance - Autosomal recessive Neuro - Seizures Lab - Glycogen synthetase deficiency Metabolic - Neonatal hypoglycemia - Fasting hypoglycemia - Fasting hyperketonemia - Hyperglycemia and hyperlactatemia with feeding ▲ Close
A genetically inherited anomaly of glycogen metabolism and a form of glycogen storage disease (GSD) characterized by fasting hypoglycemia. This is not a glycogenosis, strictly speaking, as the enzyme deficiency decreases glycogen reserves. Epidemiology It is an extremely rare disease; about 20 cases have been reported in the literature so far. Clinical description It commonly appears in infancy or in early childhood. Patients present with morning fatigue and fasting hypoglycemia (without hepatomegaly) associated with hyperketonemia but without hyperalaninemia or hyperlactacidemia.
Glycogen storage disease type 0, liver (liver GSD 0), a form of glycogen storage disease (GSD), is a rare abnormality of glycogen metabolism (how the body uses and stores glycogen, the storage form of glucose). Unlike other types of GSD, liver GSD 0 does not involve excessive or abnormal glycogen storage, and causes moderately decreased glycogen stores in the liver. ... This condition differs from another form of GSD 0 which chiefly affects the muscles and heart ( Glycogen storage disease type 0, muscle ) and is thought to be caused by mutations in the GYS1 gene.
Affluenza: How to Be Successful and Stay Sane . Vermilion . ISBN 978-0-09-190011-3 . ^ James, Oliver (2008). The Selfish Capitalist . Vermilion . ISBN 978-0-09-192381-5 . ^ James, Oliver (2007). ... London: Vermilion. p. 344 . ISBN 978-0-09-190010-6 . 1. The mean prevalence of emotional distress for the six English-speaking nations combined was 21.6%. ... (Archive is the same work, but on a different website) Further reading [ edit ] The Circle of Simplicity , Cecile Andrews, ISBN 0-06-092872-7 The Golden Ghetto: The Psychology of Affluence , Jessie H. O'Neill, ISBN 978-0-9678554-0-0 Voluntary Simplicity , Duane Elgin, ISBN 0-688-12119-5 Voluntary Simplicity , Daniel Doherty & Amitai Etzioni, ISBN 0-7425-2066-8 How Much Is Too Much?
Glycogen storage disease type 0 Glycogen storage disease type 0 has defect in glycogen synthase Specialty Medical genetics Glycogen storage disease type 0 is a disease characterized by a deficiency in the glycogen synthase enzyme (GSY). ... Serum electrolytes calculate the anion gap to determine presence of metabolic acidosis ; typically, patients with glycogen-storage disease type 0 (GSD-0) have an anion gap in the reference range and no acidosis. ... In patients with glycogen-storage disease type 0, hyperlipidemia is absent or mild and proportional to the degree of fasting. ... In patients with glycogen-storage disease type 0, urine ketones findings are positive, and urine-reducing substance findings are negative. ... The identification of asymptomatic and oligosymptomatic siblings in several glycogen-storage disease type 0 families has suggested that glycogen-storage disease type 0 is underdiagnosed.  Mortality/Morbidity [ edit ] The major morbidity is a risk of fasting hypoglycemia, which can vary in severity and frequency.
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 2199–. ISBN 978-0-7817-5777-5 . ^ Andres Kanner; Steven C. Schachter (28 July 2010). Psychiatric Controversies in Epilepsy . Elsevier. pp. 54–. ISBN 978-0-08-055959-9 . ^ Michael R. Trimble; Bettina Schmitz (9 June 2011). ... Oxford University Press. pp. 147–. ISBN 978-0-19-970699-0 .
Neonatal Skin: Structure and Function . CRC Press. pp. 67–. ISBN 978-0-8247-0887-0 . ^ Mariagrazia Stracquadanio; Lilliana Ciotta (20 April 2015). ... A Woman Doctor's Guide to Skin Care: Essential Facts and Information on Keeping Skin Healthy . Hyperion. ISBN 978-0-7868-8100-0 . ^ Sarah Bekaert (2007). ... CUP Archive. pp. 321–. ISBN 978-0-521-22673-8 . ^ Raphael Rubin; David S. ... Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 816–. ISBN 978-0-7817-9516-6 . ^ Andrea Dunaif; R. ... Academic Press. 3 October 1994. pp. 1994–. ISBN 978-0-08-058373-0 . Further reading [ edit ] Shukla, G.
Laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft (LC) type 0 is a congenital respiratory tract anomaly characterized by a submucosal laryngo-tracheo-esophageal cleft with minor symptoms or an asymptomatic course. ... Clinical description Subjects with type 0 LC may have no obvious symptoms or mild symptoms such as occasional aspirations.
Examples of treatment options for breast atrophy, depending on the situation/when appropriate, can include estrogens, antiandrogens , and proper nutrition or weight gain . [ citation needed ] See also [ edit ] Mammoplasia Micromastia References [ edit ] ^ a b c Prem Puri; Michael E. Höllwarth (28 May 2009). Pediatric Surgery: Diagnosis and Management . ... Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-521-88159-3 . ^ Ricardo Azziz (3 July 2007). ... Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 20–. ISBN 978-0-387-69248-7 . ^ Susan Scott Ricci; Terri Kyle (2009). ... Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 213 –. ISBN 978-0-7817-8055-1 . ^ J.P. Lavery; J.S. ... Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 558–. ISBN 978-0-7817-3894-1 . ^ Cynthia Feucht; Donald E.
While diarrhea is common in people with SARS, the fecal–oral route does not appear to be a common mode of transmission.  The basic reproduction number of SARS-CoV, R 0 , ranges from 2 to 4 depending on different analyses. ... Tested substances, include ribavirin , lopinavir , ritonavir , type I interferon , that have thus far shown no conclusive contribution to the disease's course.  Administration of corticosteroids , is recommended by the British Thoracic Society / British Infection Society / Health Protection Agency in patients with severe disease and O2 saturation of <90%.  People with SARS-CoV must be isolated, preferably in negative-pressure rooms , with complete barrier nursing precautions taken for any necessary contact with these patients, to limit the chances of medical personnel becoming infected.  In certain cases, natural ventilation by opening doors and windows is documented to help decreasing indoor concentration of virus particles.  Some of the more serious damage caused by SARS may be due to the body's own immune system reacting in what is known as cytokine storm .  Vaccine [ edit ] See also: Economics of vaccines and COVID-19 vaccine As of 2020, there is no cure or protective vaccine for SARS that has been shown to be both safe and effective in humans.   According to research papers published in 2005 and 2006, the identification and development of novel vaccines and medicines to treat SARS was a priority for governments and public health agencies around the world.    In early 2004, an early clinical trial on volunteers was planned.  A major researcher's 2016 request, however, demonstrated that no field-ready SARS vaccine had been completed because likely market-driven priorities had ended funding.  Prognosis [ edit ] Several consequent reports from China on some recovered SARS patients showed severe long-time sequelae . ... As a result of quarantine procedures, some of the post-SARS patients have been documented as suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder .   Epidemiology [ edit ] Main article: 2002–2004 SARS outbreak SARS was a relatively rare disease; at the end of the epidemic in June 2003, the incidence was 8,422 cases with a case fatality rate (CFR) of 11%.  The case fatality rate (CFR) ranges from 0% to 50% depending on the age group of the patient.  Patients under 24 were least likely to die (less than 1%); those 65 and older were most likely to die (over 55%).  As with MERS and COVID-19 , SARS resulted in significantly more deaths of males than females. 2003 Probable cases of SARS – worldwide Probable cases of SARS by country or region, 1 November 2002 – 31 July 2003  Country or region Cases Deaths Fatality (%) China [a] 5,327 349 6.6 Hong Kong 1,755 299 17.0 Taiwan [b] 346 73   21.1 Canada 251 43 17.1 Singapore 238 33 13.9 Vietnam 63 5 7.9 United States 27 00 Philippines 14 2 14.3 Thailand 9 2 22.2 Germany 9 00 Mongolia 9 00 France 7 1 14.3 Australia 6 00 Malaysia 5 2 40.0 Sweden 5 00 United Kingdom 4 00 Italy 4 00 Brazil 3 00 India 3 00 South Korea 3 00 Indonesia 2 00 South Africa 1 1 100.0 Colombia 1 00 Kuwait 1 00 Ireland 1 00 Macao 1 00 New Zealand 1 00 Romania 1 00 Russia 1 00 Spain 1 00 Switzerland 1 00 Total excluding China [a] 2,769 454 16.4 Total (29 territories) 8,096 774 9.6 ^ a b Figures for China exclude Hong Kong and Macau, which are reported separately by the WHO . ^ After 11 July 2003, 325 Taiwanese cases were 'discarded'. ... CNN. 10 April 2003. Archived from the original on 28 November 2007 . Retrieved 3 April 2007 . ^ Fong K (16 August 2013).
Overview Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a contagious and sometimes fatal respiratory illness. severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) first appeared in China in November 2002. Within a few months, SARS spread worldwide, carried by unsuspecting travelers. SARS showed how quickly infection can spread in a highly mobile and interconnected world. On the other hand, a collaborative international effort allowed health experts to quickly contain the spread of the disease. There has been no known transmission of SARS anywhere in the world since 2004.
A rare pulmonary disease induced by SARS-CoV coronavirus infection, with a reported incubation period varying from 2 to 7 days. Patients present flu-like symptoms, including fever, malaise, myalgia, headache, diarrhoea, and rigors. Dry, nonproductive, cough and dyspnea are frequently reported. Severe cases evolve rapidly, progressing to respiratory distress and failure, requiring intensive care. Mortality rate is 10%. The disease appeared in 2002 in southern China, subsequently spreading in 2003 to 26 countries. Reported human-to-human transmission occurred in Toronto (Canada), Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China, Chinese Taipei, Singapore, and Hanoi (Viet Nam).
Louis: Mosby. p. 1673. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0 . ^ James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology . (10th ed.). Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0 . ^ Freedberg, et al. (2003). Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine . (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-138076-0 . This Epidermal nevi, neoplasms, cysts article is a stub .
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because of evidence that nevus comedonicus (NC) is caused by somatic mutation in the NEK9 gene (609798) on chromosome 14q24. Description Nevus comedonicus (NC) is a rare type of epidermal nevus with predilection for the face and neck area. The condition develops within the first decade of life in most patients. NC is characterized by dilated, plugged follicular ostia containing lamellar keratinaceous material and grouped in a honeycomb pattern; the distribution of lesions may be unilateral, bilateral, linear, interrupted, segmental, or along the lines of Blaschko. NC may be nonpyogenic with an acne-like appearance or associated with the formation of cysts, papules, pustules, and abscesses.
A rare, syndromic nevus characterized by the association of typically unilateral, closely arranged, linear, slightly elevated, multiple, nevus comedonicus lesions located usually on the face, neck, trunk or limbs (with or without a central, dark, firm, hyperkeratotic plug and secondary acneiform lesions) with extracutaneous ocular, skeletal, and/or central nervous system abnormalities, such as ipsilateral cataract, corneal erosion, poly-/syndactyly, absent fifth finger, scoliosis, vertebral defects, corpus callosum agenesis, seizures, interhemispheric cyst, intellectual deficiency, and/or developmental delay.
Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology . (10th ed.). Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0 . ^ Freedberg, et al. (2003). Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine . (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-138076-0 . ^ Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). ... St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0 . External links [ edit ] Classification D ICD - 10 : Q82.5 OMIM : 617025 External resources Orphanet : 64754 This Epidermal nevi, neoplasms, cysts article is a stub .
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 1152. ISBN 0-7817-7513-2 . ^ Pryse-Phillips, William (2003). ... Oxford University Press US. p. 587. ISBN 0-19-515938-1 . ^ Bradley, Walter George (2004). ... Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 2695. ISBN 0-7817-5777-0 . ^ Miller, Neil R.; Frank Burton Walsh; Valérie Biousse; William Fletcher Hoyt (2005). ... Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 1289. ISBN 0-7817-4811-9 . ^ a b Loder, Elizabeth; Dawn A. ... McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 127. ISBN 0-07-105467-7 . ^ G. D. Schott (2007).
John Wiley and Sons. p. 719 . ISBN 978-0-470-57712-7 . ^ Becker, Judith V.; Stinson, Jill D. (2008). ... John Wiley & Sons . pp. 522 . ISBN 978-0-470-25721-0 . ^ Money 1986 , p. 290 . ^ Money 1986 , p. 34 . ^ Money, J. (1984). ... Prometheus Books . p. 147. ISBN 978-0-87975-277-4 . ^ Wilson, Glen Daniel (1987). ... Taylor and Francis. pp. 107–11 . ISBN 978-0-7099-3698-5 . ^ Kaufman, F (1997). ... Washington Square Press. ISBN 978-0-87140-840-2 . Further reading [ edit ] Love, B (1992).
State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-5754-0 . ^ Jacobson, Kirsten. 2006. ... The Loss of Sadness . Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-531304-8 . ^ Wilson, Mitchell. 1993. ... New York: Anchor Books / Doubleday . ISBN 0-385-05221-9 . Ladell, R. M., and T. ... Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-5754-0 Winokur, Jon . 2005. Encyclopedia Neurotica. ISBN 0-312-32501-0 . External links [ edit ] Classification D ICD - 10 : F40 - F40.8 Library resources about Neurosis Resources in your library Resources in other libraries Janov, Arthur (1991).
Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine . (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-138076-0 . ^ James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology . (10th ed.). Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0 . This condition of the skin appendages article is a stub .
Description Pseudopili annulati is an unusual variant of normal hair characterized by a banded appearance of the hair under reflective light, as observed in pili annulati (180600), but resulting from a distinct underlying physical defect. There is no increased hair fragility (Price et al., 1970). Clinical Features Price et al. (1970) reported a 9-year-old girl with blond hair whose scalp hair showed light and dark banding since infancy. Light microscopy showed that the banding appeared only if the light struck the hair at right angles to the long axis of the hair, which was distinct from that observed with pili annulati. Polarizing light indicated variability in the thickness of the hair shaft, and illuminating light did not show bands, 2 additional features that distinguished it from pili annulati. Further examination of the hair shaft showed that the pseudopili annulati hairs had periodic widening and narrowing, that the fiber cross-section was roughly elliptical, and that a periodic twisting of the hair (30 to 40 degrees in 2 alternating directions) was superimposed on the ellipticity.
Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology . (10th ed.). Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0 . ^ Freedberg, et al. (2003). Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine . (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-138076-0 . This Epidermal nevi, neoplasms, cysts article is a stub .
Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology . Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0 . ^ Geoffrey V. Gill; Nick Beeching (1 March 2004). ... Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-0-632-06496-0 . Retrieved 14 May 2010 .