Netherton disease is a rare disorder affecting the skin, hair and immune system. Symptoms are present at birth and include red, scaly skin. Other symptoms include outbreaks of red, circular scaly rashes, thin, fragile hair (bamboo hair), and immune reactions such as hay fever, asthma, itchy skin, and eczema. Dehydration and infection are common and can be serious. Babies tend to grow slowly and have poor weight gain. Netherton syndrome is caused by the SPINK5 gene not working correctly. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Netherton syndrome is diagnosed based on clinical examination, the symptoms, and genetic testing. Treatment is focused on managing the symptoms.