Kyphoscoliotic Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome Due To Lysyl Hydroxylase 1 Deficiency
A rare subtype of kyphoscoliotic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome characterized by congenital muscle hypotonia, congenital or early-onset kyphoscoliosis (progressive or non-progressive), and generalized joint hypermobility with dislocations/subluxations (in particular of the shoulders, hips, and knees). Additional common features are skin hyperextensibility, easy bruising of the skin, rupture/aneurysm of a medium-sized artery, osteopenia/osteoporosis, blue sclerae, umbilical or inguinal hernia, chest deformity, marfanoid habitus, talipes equinovarus, and refractive errors. Subtype-specific manifestations include skin fragility, atrophic scarring, scleral/ocular fragility/rupture, microcornea, and facial dysmorphology (like low‐set ears, epicanthal folds, down‐slanting palpebral fissures, high palate). Molecular testing is obligatory to confirm the diagnosis.